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Introduction to Noncancerous Gynecologic Anormalities

By S. Gene McNeeley, MD, Clinical Professor;Chief of Gynecology, Center for Advanced Gynecology and Pelvic Health, Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine;Trinity Health

Noncancerous (benign) gynecologic growths include cysts, polyps, and myomas. Noncancerous growths can develop on the vulva or in the vagina, uterus, or ovaries.

Cysts are closed sacs that are separate from the tissue around them. They often contain fluid or semisolid material. Cysts that commonly occur in the genital organs include the following:

Occasionally, cysts or tumors in an ovary can cause the ovary to twist—a disorder called adnexal torsion.

Rarely, certain growths become cancerous (see Overview of Female Reproductive System Cancers).

Another gynecologic abnormality is narrowing of the passageway through the lower part of the uterus (cervix) to the larger upper part (body)—a disorder called cervical stenosis.