Floaters are opacities that move across the visual field and do not correspond to external visual objects.
With aging, the vitreous humor can contract and separate from the retina. The age at which this change occurs varies but most often is between 50 and 75 yr. During this separation, the vitreous can intermittently tug on the retina. The mechanical traction stimulates the retina, which sends a signal that is perceived by the brain and interpreted as light. Complete separation of the vitreous leads to an increase in floaters, which may last for years.
However, traction on the retina may create a hole (retinal tear), and if fluid leaks behind the tear, the retina may detach. Retinal detachment may also be caused by other factors (eg, trauma, primary retinal disorders). Lightning-like flashes, common in retinal detachment, are called photopsias. Photopsias can also occur when rubbing the eyes or when looking around after awakening.
The most common cause of vitreous floaters is
Less common causes are listed in Some Causes of Floaters.
Rare causes of floaters include intraocular tumors (eg, lymphoma) and vitritis (inflammation of the vitreous). Intraocular foreign bodies can cause floaters but usually manifest with other symptoms, such as loss of vision, eye pain, or redness.
Some Causes of Floaters
The most important goal is to identify serious vitreous and retinal disorders. If these disorders cannot be ruled out, patients should be examined by an ophthalmologist using an indirect ophthalmoscope after pupillary dilation. Recognizing ocular migraine is also helpful.
History of present illness should ascertain onset and duration of symptoms and the shape and volume of floaters, as well as whether they are unilateral or bilateral and whether they have been preceded by trauma. The patient should try to distinguish floaters from lightning-like flashes of light (as in photopsias) or jagged lines across the visual field (as in migraine). Important associated symptoms include loss of vision (and its distribution in the visual field) and eye pain.
Review of systems should seek symptoms of possible causes, such as headaches (ocular migraine) and eye redness (vitreous inflammation).
Past medical history should note diabetes (including diabetic retinopathy), migraine headaches, eye surgery, severe myopia, and any disorders that could affect the immune system (eg, AIDS).
Eye examination should be reasonably complete. Best corrected visual acuity is measured. The eyes are inspected for redness. Visual fields are assessed in all patients. However, recognition of visual field defects by bedside examination is very insensitive, so inability to show such a defect is not evidence that the patient has full visual fields. Extraocular movements and pupillary light responses are assessed. If patients have a red eye or eye pain, the corneas are examined under magnification after fluorescein staining, and slit-lamp examination is done if possible. Ocular pressure is measured (tonometry).
Ophthalmoscopy is the most important part of the examination; it is done after dilating the pupils. To dilate the pupils, the physician first makes sure to record pupillary size and light responses, then instills drops, usually 1 drop each of a short-acting α-adrenergic agonist (eg, 2.5% phenylephrine) and a cycloplegic (eg, 1% tropicamide or 1% cyclopentolate). The pupils are fully dilated about 20 min after these drops are instilled. Ophthalmoscopy is done by a nonophthalmologist using a direct ophthalmoscope. An ophthalmologist does indirect ophthalmoscopy, which provides a more complete view of the retina, particularly the periphery.
Retinal detachment is suggested by sudden increases in floaters, photopsias, or any of its other, more specific characteristics (eg, visual field defects, retinal abnormalities). Bilateral synchronous symptoms suggest ocular migraine, although patients often have difficulty deciphering the laterality of their symptoms (eg, they often interpret scintillating scotoma of the left field of both eyes as left-eyed). Loss of red reflex suggests opacification of the vitreous (eg, vitreous hemorrhage or inflammation), but it also can be caused by advanced cataracts. Loss of vision suggests a serious disorder causing dysfunction of the vitreous or retina.
Floaters by themselves rarely indicate a serious disorder.
Patients with any abnormal findings on examination require ophthalmologic referral.
If floaters are accompanied by any other symptoms (eg, persistent flashing lights, visual deficit, sensation of a moving curtain of vision loss) or develop suddenly, patients require ophthalmologic referral, regardless of examination findings.