(See also Overview of Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders.)
Esophageal rupture may be iatrogenic during endoscopic procedures or other instrumentation or may be spontaneous (Boerhaave syndrome). Patients are seriously ill, with symptoms of mediastinitis. Diagnosis is by esophagography with a water-soluble contrast agent. Immediate surgical repair and drainage are required.
Endoscopic procedures are the primary cause of esophageal rupture, but spontaneous rupture may occur, typically related to vomiting, retching, or swallowing a large food bolus. The most common site of rupture is the distal esophagus on the left side. Acid and other stomach contents cause a fulminant mediastinitis and shock. Pneumomediastinum is common.
Chest and abdominal x-rays showing mediastinal air, pleural effusion, or mediastinal widening suggest the diagnosis.
Diagnosis of esophageal rupture is confirmed by esophagography with a water-soluble contrast agent, which avoids potential mediastinal irritation from barium. CT of the thorax detects mediastinal air and fluid but does not localize the perforation well. Endoscopy may miss a small perforation.