Cystoscopy is insertion of a rigid or flexible fiberoptic instrument into the bladder.
Indications include the following:
Treating urethral strictures
Accessing the bladder for ureteral x-rays or placement of JJ ("double J") stents (stents with coiled ends placed in the renal pelvis and bladder)
The main contraindication is active UTI.
Cystoscopy is usually done in an outpatient setting with use of local anesthesia (urethral application of 2% lidocaine gel) or, when necessary, conscious sedation or general anesthesia. Complications include UTI, bleeding, and bladder and/or urethral trauma.