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What's New in Immunization

By William D. Surkis, MD, Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine;Director, Internal Medicine Residency Program, Jefferson Medical College;Lankenau Medical Center ; Jerome Santoro, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine;Chief, Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College;Lankenau Medical Center

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October, 2014: A new meningococcal vaccine directed against serotype B was approved by the FDA; it is a recombinant vaccine composed of two LP2086 antigens This vaccine is indicated for patients aged 10 to 25 yr (reported by the FDA).

April 14, 2014: England's HPV vaccination campaign, which began in 2008, has resulted in a dramatic decrease in HPV types 16 and 18 in sexually active young women aged 16 to 18 yr; prevalence decreased from 1 in 5 to 1 in 15 (reported by the Society for General Microbiology).

April 11, 2014: An Australian study found that 80% of Bordetella pertussis strains implicated in a 2012 outbreak did not express the surface protein pertactin; this finding suggests that such strains are more likely to evade a vaccine-induced immune response than the strains that express pertactin (Lam C, Octavia S, Ricafort L, et al: Rapid increase in pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates, Australia. Emergency Infectious Diseases, April 2014.)

April 3, 2014: A self-controlled case-series study reported a substantial increase in risk of stroke immediately after herpes zoster infection (shingles—see Herpes Zoster), followed by a decrease in risk after 6 mo (Langan SM, Minassian C, Smeeth L, Thomas SL: Risk of stroke following herpes zoster: A self-controlled case-series study. Clinical Infectious Diseases, April 2014).

April 1, 2014: A study of self-applied microneedle patches as a new vaccination method was studied for the first time. When a self-administered microneedle patch was offered, intent to vaccinate increased significantly; a strong preference for self-vaccination was noted (Norman JJ, Arya JM, McClain MA, Frew PM, Meltzer MI, Prausnitz MR: Microneedle patches: Usability and acceptability for self-vaccination against influenza. Vaccine 32[16]:1856-1862, 2014).

March 18, 2014: A new measles outbreak occurred in New York City, mostly in northern Manhattan, possibly transmitted in medical facilities where the symptoms and signs of measles were not recognized. This outbreak was considered ended as of May 28, 2014; there were 26 confirmed cases (reported by the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene).

November 15, 2013: The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of inactivated Vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine in people aged ≥ 2 mo (previously starting at age ≥ 17 yr—see MMWR 62 [45]:898–900, 2013) who are at risk of exposure to Japanese encephalitis.

January 25, 2013: The ACIP recommended that children aged 6 wk to 18 mo who are at increased risk of meningococcal disease be vaccinated against meningococcal serogroups C and Y (see MMWR 62[03]:52-54, 2013).