Glenoid Labral Tear
The glenoid labrum usually tears as a result of a specific trauma, such as a fall onto an outstretched arm. Tears can also result from chronic overhead movement, as occurs in pitching. A glenoid labral tear causes pain during motion. Treatment is with physical therapy and sometimes surgery.
The shoulder (unlike the hip or elbow) is an inherently unstable joint; it has been likened to a golf ball sitting on a tee. To enhance structural stability, the glenoid (anatomically, a very shallow socket) is deepened by the labrum, which is a rubbery, fibrocartilaginous material attached around the lip of the glenoid. This structure can tear during athletics, especially during throwing sports, or as a result of blunt trauma when falling and landing on an outstretched upper extremity.