Overview of Nutritional Support
Many undernourished people (see Undernutrition) need additional nutrition (nutritional support). Artificial feeding, which uses commercial nutrient mixtures rather than food, is a common form of nutritional support. Nutritional support is intended to increase the amount of muscle tissue (muscle mass). It usually provides calories as well as vitamins and minerals.
Nutrients are given by mouth whenever possible, ideally as regular food. When people are reluctant to eat, the following strategies can sometimes help them eat more regular food:
However, these strategies are not enough for some people. For example, these strategies do not help people who cannot eat because of injuries or other physical problems (such as difficulty swallowing) or who have difficulty absorbing nutrients. These people may need nutritional support.
Nutritional support includes the following:
With tube feedings, nutrients go directly into the stomach or small intestine.
If people are dying or have advanced dementia, artificial feeding is usually not recommended (see Nutritional Support for People Who Are Dying or Severely Demented).
Before starting nutritional support, doctors must first determine the amount and mix of nutrients the person needs. People need a certain amount of nutrients for energy, which is measured in calories. The number of calories people need varies depending on the following:
The mix of nutrients typically includes carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and fluids.
Usually, doctors estimate the person's needs using equations based on the person's weight, height, age, sex, and activity level. Doctors adjust the requirements if the person has a condition that increases the need for calories, such as a serious illness, kidney failure, an infection, an injury, or recent surgery. Some centers use a special technique to obtain a more accurate estimate. This technique measures how much oxygen is inhaled and how much carbon dioxide is exhaled—an indication of how much energy the body is using.
Health care practitioners must carefully manage artificial feeding methods to make sure people are receiving the nutrients they need and to prevent problems, such as infections. To determine whether nutritional support is appropriate and effective, doctors regularly monitor factors such as the following:
Body mass index (BMI—weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared)
Body composition (the amount of fat and muscle tissue—see Fat Versus Lean: Body Composition)
Substances in blood, urine, and stool that indicate nutritional status
Muscle strength (for example, by measuring how strong the hand grip is)
An increase in muscle strength indicates an increase in muscle mass and thus improved nutritional status.