(See also Overview of Vitamins.)
Folate (folic acid) is a B vitamin. Along with vitamin B12, folate is necessary for the formation of normal red blood cells and the synthesis of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which is the genetic material of cells. Folate is also necessary for normal development of a fetus’s nervous system. A low intake of folate may increase the risk of fractures in older adults.
Good sources of folate include raw green leafy vegetables, asparagus, broccoli, fruits (especially citrus), liver, other organ meats, dried yeast, and enriched breads, pastas, and cereals. Extensive cooking destroys 50 to 95% of the folate in food.
In the United States and Canada, folate is added to enrich foods made from grains. Folate in supplements or in enriched foods is easier for the body to absorb than the folate that occurs naturally in food.
Women who are pregnant or who could become pregnant should take folate supplements to reduce the risk of having an infant with a birth defect, mainly neural tube defects. Women who have had a baby with a neural tube defect are often prescribed higher doses of folate.
Folate supplements do not protect against coronary artery disease or stroke. There is no evidence that folate supplements reduce or increase the risk of various cancers. Folate supplements do not seem to improve cognitive function in older adults.
Not eating enough raw leafy vegetables and citrus fruits can cause folate deficiency.
Anemia can develop, causing fatigue, paleness, irritability, shortness of breath, and dizziness.
A severe deficiency may result in a red and sore tongue, a reduced sense of taste, depression, confusion, and dementia.
If a pregnant woman has folate deficiency, the risk of having an infant with a birth defect of the spinal cord or brain is increased.
The diagnosis is based on blood tests.
Folate supplements taken by mouth usually correct the deficiency.
Because the body stores only a small amount of folate, a diet lacking in folate leads to a deficiency within a few months. Folate deficiency is common because many people do not eat enough raw leafy vegetables or citrus fruits. Also, prolonged cooking destroys much of the folate in food.
Folate deficiency may result from
People who drink large amounts of alcohol do not consume enough folate because they often substitute alcohol for food. Such people are often generally undernourished. Alcohol consumed in large amounts also interferes with the absorption and processing (metabolism) of folate.
Malabsorption disorders (such as celiac disease) interfere with absorption of folate.
Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding and people undergoing dialysis may develop this deficiency because their need for folate is increased.
Some drugs decrease the absorption of this vitamin. They include
Other drugs interfere with the metabolism of folate. They include
Anemia develops gradually and may be more severe than symptoms suggest. Fatigue may be the first symptom.
In addition to the general symptoms of anemia (such as paleness, irritability, shortness of breath, and dizziness), folate deficiency, if severe, may result in a red and sore tongue, a reduced sense of taste, weight loss, and depression.
If a pregnant woman has folate deficiency, the risk of having an infant with a birth defect of the spinal cord or brain (neural tube defect) is increased.
If a blood test detects large red blood cells in people who have anemia or who are undernourished, doctors measure the folate level in a blood sample. A low level indicates folate deficiency.
Doctors also measure the vitamin B12 level to rule out vitamin B12 deficiency because this deficiency can also result in anemia and large red blood cells. Vitamin B12 deficiency may also affect the nervous system, causing neurologic symptoms. Doctors must rule out vitamin B12 deficiency before they treat folate deficiency.