During bronchoscopy, the doctor passes a flexible fiber-optic tube through a person's nostril and down into the airways. The doctor can directly view the larger airways. The person is usually awake, although often sedated. An intravenous (IV) needle is used to provide access to the vein so drugs can be given. Electrocardiography (ECG) and pulse oximetry (monitors seen on the far left) are used to monitor vital signs during the procedure.