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Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language.

Contributors

We gratefully acknowledge the expertise of the contributors to our current online version. The subject(s) that they are responsible for are listed after their affiliations.

Denise M. Aaron, MD
Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center;Veterans Administration Medical Center, White River Junction
Noncancerous Skin Growths , Fungal Skin Infections

Siddique A. Abbasi, MD, MSc
Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University;Providence VA Medical Center and the Cardiovascular Institute
Heart Tumors

Bola Adamolekun, MD
Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center
Seizure Disorders

Chris G. Adigun, MD
Dermatology & Laser Center of Chapel Hill
Nail Disorders

Roy D. Altman, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Joint Disorders , Paget Disease of Bone

Gerald L. Andriole, MD
Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine
Benign Prostate Disorders

Parswa Ansari, MD
Hofstra Northwell - Lenox Hill Hospital, New York
Anal and Rectal Disorders , Gastrointestinal Emergencies

Brian R. Apatoff, MD, PhD
Weill Cornell Medical College;New York Presbyterian Hospital
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related Disorders

Noel A. Armenakas, MD
Weill Cornell Medical School;New York Presbyterian Hospital and Lenox Hill Hospital
Injury to the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Guy P. Armstrong, MD
North Shore Hospital, Auckland;Waitemata Cardiology, Auckland Valvular Disorders
Heart Valve Disorders , Endocarditis

J. Malcolm O. Arnold, MD
University of Western Ontario;University Hospital, London Health Sciences Center
Cardiomyopathy , Heart Failure

Thomas Arnold, MD
Department of Emergency Medicine, LSU Health Sciences Center Shreveport
Bites and Stings

Raul Artal, MD
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
High-Risk Pregnancy

Evelyn Attia, MD
New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College;New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University Medical Center
Eating Disorders

Jeanne Marie Baffa, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University;Nemours/Afred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Birth Defects of the Heart

James Baird, CPO
Hanger Clinic
Limb Prosthetics

George L. Bakris, MD
University of Chicago School of Medicine
High Blood Pressure

Raghav Bansal, MBBS
Ichan School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY
Bezoars and Foreign Bodies of the Digestive Tract

Raghav Bansal, MBBS
Ichan School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY
Pancreatitis

David H. Barad, MD, MS
Center for Human Reproduction
Symptoms of Gynecologic Disorders , Diagnosis of Gynecologic Disorders

Peggy P. Barco, MS, BSW, OTD, OTR/L, SCDCM, CDRS
Washington University Medical School
The Older Driver

Robert A. Barish, MD, MBA
University of Illinois at Chicago
Bites and Stings

Jennifer M. Barker, MD
Children's Hospital Colorado, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology
Polyglandular Deficiency Syndromes

John G. Bartlett, MD
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Pneumonia

Rosemary Basson, MD
University of British Columbia and Vancouver Hospital;UBC Sexual Medicine Program
Sexual Dysfunction in Women

James R. Berenson, MD
Institute for Myeloma and Bone Cancer Research
Plasma Cell Disorders

John L. Berk, MD
Amyloidosis Center, Boston University Medical Center
Amyloidosis

Barbara J. Berkman, DSW, PhD
Columbia University School of Social Work
Social Issues Affecting Older People , Elder Abuse

Richard W. Besdine, MD
Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
The Aging Body

Rajeev Bhatia, MD
Northeast Ohio Medical University;Akron Children's Hospital
Respiratory Disorders in Infants and Children

Scott W. Biest, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
Fibroids

Joseph J. Biundo, MD
Tulane Medical Center
Muscle, Bursa, and Tendon Disorders

Donald W. Black, MD
University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine
Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance

Karen Blackstone, MD
George Washington University;Washington DC Veterans Administration Medical Center
Death and Dying

Steven D. Blatt, MD
State University of New York, Upstate Medical University;State University of New York, Upstate Medical University
Social Issues Affecting Children and Their Families

Marcy B. Bolster, MD
Harvard Medical School;Massachusetts General Hospital
Osteoporosis

Herbert L. Bonkovsky, MD
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Porphyrias

Ann S. Botash, MD
State University of New York, Upstate Medical University
Child Neglect and Abuse

Alfred A. Bove, MD, PhD
Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University
Diving and Compressed Air Injuries

Thomas G. Boyce, MD, MPH
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Gastroenteritis

Simeon A. Boyadjiev Boyd, MD
University of California, Davis
Birth Defects of the Face, Bones, Joints, and Muscles

Christopher J. Brady, MD
Wilmer Eye Institute, Retina Division, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Symptoms of Eye Disorders

George R. Brown, MD
Mountain home VAMC, Johnson City, TN;East Tennessee State University
Sexuality

Haywood L. Brown, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Normal Pregnancy , Normal Labor and Delivery

Erika F. Brutsaert, MD
Albert Einstein College of Medicine;Montefiore Medical Center
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism

Robert G. Brzyski, MD, PhD
The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Biology of the Female Reproductive System

Larry M. Bush, MD
Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University;University of Miami-Miller School of Medicine
Bacterial Infections

Jerrold T. Bushberg, PhD, DABMP
School of Medicine, University of California, Davis
Radiation Injury

Edward R. Cachay, MD, MAS
University of California, San Diego
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

Andrew Calabria, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania;The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Hormonal Disorders in Children

Danielle Campagne, MD
University of San Francisco - Fresno
Fractures, Dislocations, and Sprains

Caroline Carney , MD, MSc
Magellan Healthcare
Overview of Mental Health Care

David B. Carr, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
The Older Driver

Carla Carvalho, MD, MPH
Stanford University Hospital
Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock

Mary T. Caserta, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry;Golisano Children’s Hospital at Strong, University of Rochester Medical Center
Viral Infections in Infants and Children

Bartolome R. Celli, MD
Tufts University;St. Elizabeth's Medical Center
Rehabilitation for Lung and Airway Disorders

Bruce A. Chabner, MD
Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center;Harvard Medical School
Prevention and Treatment of Cancer , Overview of Cancer

Walter W. Chan, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women's Hospital
Diagnosis of Digestive Disorders

Ian M. Chapman, MBBS, PhD
University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital
Pituitary Gland Disorders

Julia F. Charles, MD, PhD
Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women's Hospital
Paget Disease of Bone

Lois Choi-Kain, MD
Harvard Medical School;Gunderson Residence of McLean Hospital;McLean Borderline Personality Disorder Training Institute
Personality Disorders

Alfred J. Cianflocco, MD, FAAFP
Cleveland Clinic
Low Back and Neck Pain

Jesse M. Civan, MD
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Fibrosis and Cirrhosis of the Liver

Paula J. Clayton, MD
University of Minnesota School of Medicine;American Foundation for Suicide Prevention
Suicidal Behavior and Self-Injury , Suicidal Behavior

Erin G. Clifton, MA
Case Western Reserve University
Violence Against Women

Elizabeth L. Cobbs, MD
George Washington University;Washington DC Veterans Administration Medical Center
Death and Dying

William J. Cochran, MD
Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA;Temple University School of Medicine
Digestive Disorders in Children , Birth Defects of the Digestive Tract , Gastrointestinal (GI) and Liver Problems in Newborns

Alan S. Cohen, MD
Boston University School of Medicine;Amyloid: The Journal of Protein Folding Disorders
Amyloidosis

Robert B. Cohen, DMD
Tufts University School of Dental Medicine
Lip and Tongue Disorders

Sidney Cohen, MD
Thomas Jefferson University
Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease

Kathryn Colby, MD, PhD
University of Chicago School of Medicine
Diagnosis of Eye Disorders , Cataract , Injuries to the Eye , Symptoms of Eye Disorders

Harold R. Collard, MD
University of California San Francisco
Interstitial Lung Diseases

Rafael Antonio Ching Companioni, MD
Icahn School of Medicine, Elmhurst Hospital Center
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)

Deborah M. Consolini, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University;Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Care of Newborns and Infants , Health Supervision of Well Children , Symptoms in Infants and Children

Başak Çoruh, MD
University of Washington
Bronchiectasis and Atelectasis

William Coryell, MD
Carver College of Medicine at University of Iowa
Mood Disorders

Jimena Cubillos, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Birth Defects of the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Emmett T. Cunningham, Jr., MD, PhD, MPH
Stanford University;The Uveitis Service, California Pacific Medical Center and Clinic
Uveitis and Related Disorders

Patricia A. Daly, MD
Valley Health System;University of Virginia
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Daniel F. Danzl, MD
University of Louisville School of Medicine
Cold Injuries

Shinjita Das, MD
Harvard Medical School;Massachusetts General Hospital
Psoriasis and Scaling Disorders , Sweating Disorders , Pigment Disorders

Norman L. Dean, MD
Chapel Hill;American College of Physicians
Drowning

Peter J. Delves, PhD
University College London, London, UK
Biology of the Immune System , Allergic Reactions and Other Hypersensitivity Disorders

Ara DerMarderosian, PhD
University of the Sciences
Medicinal Herbs and Nutraceuticals

Deepinder K. Dhaliwal, MD, L.Ac
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Refractive Disorders

A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD
North Atlanta Dermatology
Bacterial Skin Infections

Michael C. DiMarino, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders , Diverticular Disease , Bezoars and Foreign Bodies of the Digestive Tract , Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease

Joel E. Dimsdale, MD
University of California, San Diego
Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

James G. H. Dinulos, MD
Dartmouth Medical School
Parasitic Skin Infections , Viral Skin Infections

Caroline Carney Doebbeling, MD, MSc
Cetan Health Consultants LLC, Indianapolis, IN;MDwise, Inc., Indianapolis, IN
Overview of Mental Health Care

Karl Doghramji, MD
Jefferson Sleep Disorders Center, Thomas Jefferson University
Sleep Disorders

James D. Douketis, MD
McMaster University;St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton
Venous Disorders , Lymphatic Disorders

Daniel A. Doyle, MD
Thomas Jefferson University;A.I. duPont Children’s Hospital
Growth and Development

Antonette T. Dulay, MD
Main Line Health System;Axia Women’s Health
Complications of Pregnancy

Jeffrey S. Dungan, MD
Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine
Detection of Genetic Disorders

Derrick A. Dupre, MD
Allegheny General Hospital;Drexel University College of Medicine
Head Injuries , Spinal Injuries

Esther Eisenberg, MD
Vanderbilt University Medical Center;Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Endometriosis

Josephine Elia, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University;Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Mental Health Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Alberto Espay, MD
University of Cincinnati
Movement Disorders

B. Mark Evers, MD
University of Kentucky
Carcinoid Tumors

Stephen J. Falchek, MD
Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children;Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Birth Defects of the Brain and Spinal Cord

Abimbola Farinde, PhD, PharmD
Columbia Southern University
Drug Dynamics

Christopher M. Fecarotta, MD
Phoenix Children’s Hospital
Eye Disorders in Children

Norah C. Feeny, PhD
Case Western Reserve University
Violence Against Women

James Fernandez, MD, PhD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University;Louis Stokes VA Medical Center, Wade Park;
Immunodeficiency Disorders

Bradley D. Figler, MD
Thomas Jefferson University
Diagnosis of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders

Teodoro Ernesto Figueroa, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University;Nemours/A.I. duPont Nemours Hospital for Children
Incontinence in Children

David N. Finegold, MD
University of Pittsburgh
Genetics

Steven D. Freedman, MD, PhD
Harvard Medical School;Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Pancreatitis

Marvin P. Fried, MD
Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Symptoms of Nose and Throat Disorders , Nose and Sinus Disorders

Lara A. Friel, MD, PhD
University of Texas Health Medical School at Houston, McGovern Medical School
Pregnancy Complicated by Disease

Pierluigi Gambetti, MD
Case Western Reserve University
Prion Diseases

Sunir J. Garg, MD, FACS
Thomas Jefferson University;The Retina Service of Wills Eye Hospital
Retinal Disorders

James Garrity, MD
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
Eyelid and Tearing Disorders , Biology of the Eyes , Eye Socket Disorders , Optic Nerve Disorders

Margery Gass, MD
International Menopause Society
Menopause

Brian K. Gehlbach, MD
University of Chicago
Respiratory Failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

David M. Gershenson, MD
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Cancers of the Female Reproductive System

Kenneth A. Getz, MBA
Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development;The Center for Information and Study on Clinical Research Participation
The Science of Medicine and Clinical Trials

Elias A. Giraldo, MD, MS
University of Central Florida College of Medicine
Stroke (CVA)

Mark T. Gladwin, MD
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine;Pittsburgh Heart, Lung, and Blood Vascular Medicine Institute
Pulmonary Hypertension

Stephen Gluckman, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania;Penn Global Medicine
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Anne Carol Goldberg, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
Cholesterol Disorders

Stephen E. Goldfinger, MD
Harvard Medical School;Massachusetts General Hospital
Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes

Steven A. Goldman, MD, PhD
University of Rochester Medical Center;University of Copenhagen Faculty of Medicine
Biology of the Nervous System

Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD
HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente;Neurology at IMSS
Movement Disorders

M. Jay Goodkind, MD
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine;Mercer Medical Center
Heart Tumors

Carmen E. Gota, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University;Orthopedic and Rheumatologic Institute, Center for Vasculitis Care and Research
Vasculitic Disorders

Evan G. Graber, DO
Sydney Kimmel Medical College;Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Growth and Development

Norton J. Greenberger, MD
Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women's Hospital
Symptoms of Digestive Disorders

John E. Greenlee, MD
University of Utah School of Medicine
Meningitis , Brain Infections

John J. Gregory, Jr., MD
Rutgers, New Jersey Medical School;Goryeb Children's Hospital, Atlantic Health
Childhood Cancers

John H. Greist, MD
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health;Madison Institute of Medicine
Anxiety and Stress-Related Disorders

Ashley B. Grossman, MD
University of Oxford; Fellow, Green-Templeton College;Barts and the London School of Medicine;Royal Free Hospital, London
Adrenal Gland Disorders

Ravindu Gunatilake, MD
Valley Perinatal Services
Drug Use During Pregnancy

John G. Gunderson, MD
Harvard Medical School;Borderline Personality Disorder Center, McLean Hospital
Personality Disorders

Jennifer Gurney, MD
Uniformed Services, University of Health Sciences, Bethesda
Surgery

Rula A. Hajj-ali, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University;Cleveland Clinic
Autoimmune Disorders of Connective Tissue

Jesse B. Hall, MD
University of Chicago School of Medicine
Respiratory Failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

John W. Hallett, Jr., MD
Medical University of South Carolina
Peripheral Arterial Disease , Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection

Kevin C. Hazen, PhD
Duke University Health System
Diagnosis of Infectious Disease

L. Aimee Hechanova, MD
Loma Linda University;Loma Linda University Medical Center
Dialysis , Disorders of Kidney Tubules

R. Phillip Heine, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Symptoms During Pregnancy

R. Phillips Heine, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Symptoms During Pregnancy

Steven K. Herrine, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Drugs and the Liver , Manifestations of Liver Disease , Tumors of the Liver

Jerome M. Hershman, MD, MS
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA;West Los Angeles VA Medical Center
Thyroid Gland Disorders

Martin Hertl, MD, PhD
Rush University Medical Center
Transplantation

Lyall A. J. Higginson, MD
University of Ottawa;University of Ottawa Heart Institute
Symptoms of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders

Irvin H. Hirsch, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University
Sexual Dysfunction in Men , Biology of the Male Reproductive System

Robert M. A. Hirschfeld, MD
Weill Cornell Medical College
Personality Disorders

Brian D. Hoit, MD
Case Western Reserve University;University Hospitals, Case Medical Center
Pericardial Disease and Myocarditis

Jonathan G. Howlett, MD
University of Calgary;Canadian Heart Failure Society
Heart Tumors , Coronary Artery Disease

Juebin Huang, MD, PhD
Memory Impairment and Neurodegenerative Dementia (MIND) Center, University of Mississippi Medical Center
Delirium and Dementia , Brain Dysfunction

Wendy W. Huang, MD, PhD
Phoenix Children’s Hospital
Eye Disorders in Children

Victor F. Huckell, MD
University of British Columbia;Vancouver General Hospital
Endocarditis

Daniel A. Hussar, PhD
Over-the-Counter Drugs , Factors Affecting Response to Drugs , Overview of Drugs

Michael C. Iannuzzi, MD, MBA
Northwell School of Medicine;Staten Island University Hospital
Sarcoidosis

Hakan Ilaslan, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University;Imaging Institute, Diagnostic Radiology
Common Imaging Tests , Bone and Joint Tumors

Talha H. Imam, MD
University of Riverside School of Medicine;Kaiser Permanente
Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

Harry S. Jacob, MD, DHC
University of Minnesota Medical School;HemOnc Today
Spleen Disorders

Jon A. Jacobson, MD
University of Michigan
Common Imaging Tests

Navin Jaipaul, MD, MHS
Loma Linda University School of Medicine;VA Loma Linda Healthcare System
Kidney Filtering Disorders , Biology of the Kidneys and Urinary Tract , Cystic Kidney Disorders

Larry E. Johnson, MD, PhD
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences;Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System
Vitamins , Minerals

Robert G. Johnson, MD
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Surgery

Brian D. Johnston,
International Association of Resistance Training;Prescribed Exercise Clinics
Exercise and Fitness

Thomas V. Jones, MD, MPH
Pfizer
Medical Decision Making

Douglas E. Jorenby, PhD
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health;University of Wisconsin Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention
Tobacco Use

Nicholas Jospe, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Hormonal Disorders in Children

Michael J. Joyce, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University
Bone and Joint Tumors

Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
First Aid

Daniel B. Kaplan, PhD, LICSW
Adelphi University School of Social Work
Social Issues Affecting Older People , Elder Abuse

Jonette E. Keri, MD, PhD
University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine;Miami VA Hospital
Acne and Related Disorders

Bradley W. Kesser, MD
University of Virginia School of Medicine
Outer Ear Disorders

Leila M. Khazaeni, MD
Loma Linda University School of Medicine
Cataract , Diagnosis of Eye Disorders

Preeti Kishore, MD
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism

James P. Knochel, MD
University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas;Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas
Heat Disorders

Jennifer Knudtson, MD
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Biology of the Female Reproductive System

Apostolos Kontzias, MD
Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Joint Disorders , Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes

Apostolos Kontzias, MD
Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes

Arthur E. Kopelman, MD
The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University
Problems in Newborns

David N. Korones, MD
University of Rochester Medical Center
Childhood Cancers

Mary Ann Kosir, MD
Wayne State University School of Medicine;Karmanos Cancer Center
Breast Disorders

Thomas Kosten, MD
Baylor College of Medicine/MD Anderson Cancer Center
Drug Use and Abuse

Daniela Kroshinsky, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School;Massachusetts General Hospital
Pressure Sores

David J. Kuter, MD, DPhil
Harvard Medical School;Massachusetts General Hospital
Platelet Disorders , Symptoms and Diagnosis of Blood Disorders , Bleeding Due to Abnormal Blood Vessels

Jules Y. T. Lam, MD, FRCP(C)
University of Montreal;Montreal Heart Institute
Atherosclerosis

Kara C. LaMattina, MD
Boston University School of Medicine
Uveitis and Related Disorders

Lewis Landsberg, MD
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Christopher J. LaRosa, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania;Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
Congenital Kidney Tubular Disorders

Jennifer Le, PharmD, MAS, BCPS-ID
Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego
Administration and Kinetics of Drugs

Noah Lechtzin, MD, MHS
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Biology of the Lungs and Airways , Diagnosis of Lung Disorders , Symptoms of Lung Disorders

Joyce Lee, MD, MAS
University of Colorado Denver
Interstitial Lung Diseases

Joseph R. Lentino, MD, PhD
Loyola University Medical Center
Clostridium difficile -Induced Colitis

Michael C. Levin, MD
College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan;University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Symptoms of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders , Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Related Disorders , Diagnosis of Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders

Wendy S. Levinbook, MD
Hartford Dermatology Associates
Hair Disorders

Matthew E. Levison, MD
Drexel University College of Medicine;Drexel University
Bacterial Infections , Antibiotics , Zika Virus Infection

Sharon Levy, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School;Boston Children's Hospital
Problems in Adolescents

James L. Lewis, III, MD
Brookwood Baptist Health and Saint Vincent’s Ascension Health, Birmingham
Electrolyte Balance , Water Balance , Acid-Base Balance

Alan E. Lichtin, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine;Cleveland Clinic
Biology of Blood , Anemia

Paul L. Liebert, MD
Tomah Memorial Hospital, Tomah, WI
Sports Injuries

Jane Liesveld, MD
James P. Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center
Myeloproliferative Disorders

Richard W. Light, MD
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Pleural and Mediastinal Disorders

Sunny A. Linnebur, PharmD, BCPS, BCGP
University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Aging and Drugs

Gregory S. Liptak, MD, MPH
Upstate Medical University
Overview of Birth Defects , Birth Defects of the Brain and Spinal Cord , Birth Defects of the Face and Limbs

John Lissoway, MD
University of New Mexico;Presbyterian Hospital
Heat Disorders

James H. Liu, MD
UH Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University;Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
Endometriosis

Elliot M. Livstone, MD
Sarasota Memorial Hospital, Sarasota, FL
Tumors of the Digestive System

Phillip Low, MD
College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic;Mayo Clinic
Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

Andrew M. Luks, MD
University of Washington
Altitude Diseases

Lawrence R. Lustig, MD
Columbia University Medical Center and New York Presbyterian Hospital
Inner Ear Disorders , Hearing Loss and Deafness

Kristle Lee Lynch, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at The University of Pennsylvania
Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders

Shalini S. Lynch, PharmD
University of California San Francisco School of Pharmacy
Overview of Drugs , Over-the-Counter Drugs , Factors Affecting Response to Drugs

Shalini S. Lynch, PharmD
UCSF School of Pharmacy
Factors Affecting Response to Drugs

Joanne Lynn, MD, MA, MS
Altarum Institute
Death and Dying

Robert J. MacNeal, MD
Maine Medical Center
Sunlight and Skin Damage , Biology of the Skin

Vinaya Maddukuri, MD
Carolinas Medical Center
Porphyrias

James Madsen, MD, MPH
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences;US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground South, MD
Mass Casualty Weapons

Paul M. Maggio, MD, MBA
Stanford University Hospital
Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock

Kenneth Maiese, MD
Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Jersey Health Sciences University
Coma and Impaired Consciousness

Darren Malinoski, MD
Oregon Health & Science University;Portland VA Medical Center
Abdominal Injuries

Scott Manaker, MD, PhD
University of Pennsylvania Health System
Low Blood Pressure and Shock

John Markman, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Pain

Daphne E. Smith Marsh, PharmD, BC-ADM, CDE
College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago;Mile Square Health Center, University of Illinois at Chicago
Adverse Drug Reactions

Viraj A. Master, MD, PhD
Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University
Cancers of the Kidney and Genitourinary Tract

John T. McBride, MD
Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacology, Rootstown;Akron Children’s Hospital
Respiratory Disorders in Infants and Children

Margaret C. McBride, MD
Northeast Ohio Medical University;Akron Children’s Hospital
Neurologic Disorders in Children

J. Allen McCutchan, MD, MSc
University of California at San Diego
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) , Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

Robert S. McKelvie, MD, PhD
Western University;St. Joseph's Health Care
Sports and the Heart

Karen McKoy, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School;Lahey Clinic Dermatology
Itching and Dermatitis , Acne and Related Disorders , Treatment of Skin Disorders

Jessica E. McLaughlin, MD
University of Texas Health and Science Center at San Antonio
Biology of the Female Reproductive System

James I. McMillan, MD
Loma Linda University
Dialysis , Disorders of Kidney Tubules , Kidney Failure

S. Gene McNeeley, MD
Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine;Trinity Health
Pelvic Floor Disorders , Noncancerous Gynecologic Abnormalities

Noshir R. Mehta, DMD, MDS, MS
Department of Public Health and Community Servic;Tufts University School of Dental Medicine
Temporomandibular Disorders

Merck Author,
At a Glance

Matthew C. Miles, MD
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Asthma

Daniel R. Mishell, Jr., MD, MSc
Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California
Family Planning

L. Brent Mitchell, MD, FRCPC
Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta
Abnormal Heart Rhythms

Richard T. Miyamoto, MD, MS
Indiana University School of Medicine
Middle Ear Disorders

Joel L. Moake, MD
Baylor College of Medicine;J. W. Cox Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering, Rice University
Blood Clotting Process , Bleeding Due to Clotting Disorders , Excessive Clotting

Paul K. Mohabir, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine
Surgery

Julie S. Moldenhauer, MD
The Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia;The University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Complications of Labor and Delivery , Postdelivery Period

Stephanie M. Moleski, MD
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

John E. Morley, MB, BCh
St. Louis University Medical Center
Biology of the Endocrine System , Undernutrition

Angela Cafiero Moroney, PharmD
AbbVie, Inc
Drug Dynamics

Alex Moroz, MD
New York University School of Medicine
Rehabilitation

Sheldon R. Morris, MD, MPH
University of California San Diego
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Sam P. Most, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine
Facial Injuries

David F. Murchison, DDS, MMS
The University of Texas at Dallas;Texas A & M University Baylor College of Dentistry
Symptoms of Oral and Dental Disorders , Urgent Dental Problems , Lip and Tongue Disorders

David G. Mutch, MD
Washington University School of Medicine
Fibroids

Sri Kamesh Narasimhan, PhD
University of Rochester
Pain

Edward A. Nardell, MD
Harvard Medical School;Brigham & Women's Hospital
Tuberculosis and Leprosy

Linda P. Nelson, DMD, MScD
Harvard School of Dental Medicine;Children's Hospital
Biology of the Mouth and Teeth

John H. Newman, MD
Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Pulmonary Embolism

Lee S. Newman, MD, MA
Colorado School of Public Health;Colorado University Anschutz
Environmental Lung Diseases

John K. Niparko, MD
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Hearing Loss and Deafness

Alexander S. Niven, MD
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences;Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic
Bronchiectasis and Atelectasis

Patrick G. O’Connor, MD, MPH
Yale University School of Medicine
Drug Use and Abuse

Adedamola A. Ogunniyi, MD
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center;David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
Motion Sickness

Gerald F. O’Malley, DO
Sidney Kimmel School of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University and Hospital
Poisoning , Recreational Drugs and Intoxicants

Rika O’Malley, MD
Einstein Medical Center
Poisoning , Recreational Drugs and Intoxicants

Nicholas T. Orfanidis, MD
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Alcoholic Liver Disease , Blood Vessel Disorders of the Liver , Diagnosis of Liver, Gallbladder, and Biliary Disorders

Victor E. Ortega, MD, PhD
Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research, Wake Forest School of Medicine
Asthma

James T. Pacala, MD, MS
University of Minnesota Medical School
Prevention

Elizabeth H. Page, MD
Harvard Medical School;Lahey Hospital and Medical Center
Sunlight and Skin Damage , Biology of the Skin

Elizabeth H. Page, MD
Harvard Medical School;Lahey Hospital and Medical Center
Biology of the Skin

Robert M. Palmer, MD, MPH
University of Pittsburgh
Hospital Care

Elizabeth J. Palumbo, MD
The Pediatric Group, Fairfax, VA
Miscellaneous Disorders in Infants and Young Children

David M. Pariser, MD
Eastern Virginia Medical School
Sweating Disorders

Roy A. Patchell, MD, MD
Barrow Neurological Institute;University of Arizona - Phoenix
Tumors of the Nervous System

Avinash S. Patil, MD
Center for Personalized Obstetric Medicine, Valley Perinatal Services, Phoenix
Drug Use During Pregnancy

Richard D. Pearson, MD
University of Virginia School of Medicine
Parasitic Infections

Alicia R. Pekarsky, MD
State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Upstate Golisano Children's Hospital
Child Neglect and Abuse

Lawrence L. Pelletier, Jr., MD
University of Kansas School of Medicine;Robert J. Dole VA Medical and Regional Office Center, Wichita;University of Kansas School of Medicine
Endocarditis

Emily J. Pennington, MD
Wake Forest School of Medicine
Asthma

Daniel M. Peraza, MD
Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth University
Blistering Diseases

Frank Pessler, MD, PhD
Braunschweig, Germany;Hannover, Germany
Hereditary Connective Tissue Disorders , Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) , Bone Disorders in Children

Stephen P. Peters, MD, PhD
Wake Forest School of Medicine;Wake Forest Health Sciences
Asthma

William A. Petri, Jr, MD, PhD
University of Virginia School of Medicine
Rickettsial and Related Infections

Katharine A. Phillips, MD
Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

JoAnn V. Pinkerton, MD
University of Virginia Health System;The North American Menopause Society
Menstrual Disorders and Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding

Brian Pomerantz, MD
Madigan Army Medical Center
Bronchiectasis and Atelectasis

Russell K. Portenoy, MD
Albert Einstein College of Medicine;Beth Israel Medical Center
Pain

Robert S. Porter, MD
The One-Page Manual of Health

Carol S. Portlock, MD
Weill Cornell University Medical College;Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
Lymphomas

Nina N. Powell-Hamilton, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University;Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Chromosome and Gene Abnormalities , Overview of Birth Defects

Josef T. Prchal, MD
University of Utah; George E. Wahlen VA Medical Center
Myeloproliferative Disorders

Glenn M. Preminger, MD
Duke University Medical Center;Duke Comprehensive Kidney Stone Center
Stones in the Urinary Tract , Obstruction of the Urinary Tract

Craig R. Pringle, BSc, PhD
University of Warwick
Viral Infections

Christopher P. Raab, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University;Nemours/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children
Miscellaneous Disorders in Infants and Young Children

Ronald Rabinowitz, MD
University of Rochester Medical Center
Birth Defects of the Urinary Tract and Genitals

Pedro T. Ramirez, MD
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Cancers of the Female Reproductive System

Patrick Reagan, MD
University of Rochester Medical Center
Myeloproliferative Disorders

Robert W. Rebar, MD
Western Michigan University Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine
Infertility

Wingfield E. Rehmus, MD, MPH
University of British Columbia;BC Children’s Hospital, Division of Dermatology
Nail Disorders , Hypersensitivity and Inflammatory Skin Disorders

Barbara Resnick, PhD, CRNP
University of Maryland School of Nursing
Provision of Care to Older People

Sanjay G. Revankar, MD
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Fungal Infections

Douglas J. Rhee, MD
University Hospitals/Case Western Reserve University
Glaucoma

Candido E. Rivera, MD
Mayo Clinic
Iron Overload

Melvin I. Roat, MD, FACS
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University;Wills Eye Hospital
Corneal Disorders , Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders

Beryl J. Rosenstein, MD
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Cystic Fibrosis (CF)

Steven Rosenzweig, MD
Drexel University College of Medicine
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

Laurence Z. Rubenstein, MD, MPH
University of Oklahoma College of Medicine;University of California, Los Angeles
Falls

Fred H. Rubin, MD
University of Pittsburgh Medical Center-Shadyside ;University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Immunization

Michael Rubin, MDCM
Weill Cornell Medical College;New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical Center
Cranial Nerve Disorders , Muscular Dystrophies and Related Disorders , Peripheral Nerve Disorders , Spinal Cord Disorders , Craniocervical Junction Disorders

Atenodoro R. Ruiz, Jr., MD
The Medical City, Pasig City, Metro-Manila, Philippines
Biology of the Digestive System , Malabsorption

Daniel P. Runde, MD
Carver College of Medicine at University of Iowa
Electrical and Lightning Injuries

J. Mark Ruscin, PharmD, FCCP, BCPS
Southern Illinois University Edwardsville School of Pharmacy
Aging and Drugs

Paul S. Russell, MD
Harvard Medical School;Massachusetts General Hospital
Transplantation

Anna E. Rutherford, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Hepatitis

Lawrence M. Ryan, MD
Medical College of Wisconsin
Gout and Pseudogout

Michael E. Rytting, MD
Department of Leukemia, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center;Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer
Leukemias

Charles Sabatino, JD
Georgetown University Law Center;American Bar Association
Legal and Ethical Issues

David B. Sachar, MD
Mount Sinai School of Medicine;The Mount Sinai Hospital
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD)

Birendra P. Sah, MD
Upstate Medical University
Sarcoidosis

Vaishali Sanchorawala, MD
Boston Medical Center and University School of Medicine
Amyloidosis

Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH
Stanford University
Hereditary Metabolic Disorders

Christopher Sanford, MD, MPH, DTM&H
University of Washington
Travel and Health

Jerome Santoro, MD
Jefferson Medical College;Lankenau Medical Center
Immunization

Ravindra Sarode, MD
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Blood Transfusion

Clarence T. Sasaki, MD
Yale University School of Medicine
Mouth and Throat Disorders

Erik Schaffer, CP
A Step Ahead Prosthetics, Hicksville, NY
Limb Prosthetics

Peter C. Schalock, MD
Harvard Medical School;Massachusetts General Hospital
Hypersensitivity and Inflammatory Skin Disorders , Psoriasis and Scaling Disorders , Pigment Disorders

Bradley A. Schiff, MD
Montefiore Medical Center, The University Hospital of Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Mouth, Nose, and Throat Cancers

Steven Schmitt, MD
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University;Cleveland Clinic
Bone and Joint Infections

S. Charles Schulz, MD
University of Minnesota Medical School;Prairie Care Medical Group
Schizophrenia and Delusional Disorder

Marvin I. Schwarz, MD
University of Colorado Denver
Autoimmune Disorders of the Lungs

Laura Sech, MD
University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine
Family Planning

Sanjay Sethi, MD
University at Buffalo SUNY
Abscess in the Lungs , Acute Bronchitis , Pneumonia

Anuja P. Shah, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA;Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
Symptoms of Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders

Udayan K. Shah, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University;Nemours/A.I. duPont Hospital for Children
Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders in Children

Michael J. Shea, MD
University of Michigan Health Systems
Biology of the Heart and Blood Vessels , Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders

Patrick J. Shenot, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Disorders of Urination , Penile and Testicular Disorders

David D. Sherry, MD
University of Pennsylvania;The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Hereditary Connective Tissue Disorders , Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) , Bone Disorders in Children

Daryl Shorter, MD
Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center;Baylor College of Medicine
Drug Use and Abuse

Ali A. Siddiqui, MD
Thomas Jefferson University
Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders , Biology of the Liver and Gallbladder

Stephen D. Silberstein, MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University
Headaches

Harold M. Silverman, PharmD
The Pill Book
Brand-Name and Generic Drugs

Emily Silverstein, MD
University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine
Family Planning

Daphne Simeon, MD
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Dissociative Disorders

Michael J. Smith, MD, MSCE
Duke University
Vaccination of Children , Vaccination of Children

Jack D. Sobel, MD
Wayne State University School of Medicine
Fungal Infections

David E. Soper, MD
Medical University of South Carolina
Vaginal Infections and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

David Spiegel, MD
Jack, Lulu and Sam Willson, Stanford School of Medicine
Dissociative Disorders

Manuals Staff,
Common Medical Tests , Resources for Help and Information , The One-Page Manual of Health , Weights and Measures , About The Merck Manual Home Health Handbook Online Version , Latest Updates , Pronunciations , Anatomical Drawings , Selected Links , Multimedia

Dan J. Stein, MD, PhD
University of Cape Town
Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders

David R. Steinberg, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Hand Disorders

Marvin E. Steinberg, MD
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Osteonecrosis

Lauren Strazzula, MD
Massachusetts General Hospital
Pressure Sores

Kingman P. Strohl, MD
Case School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University;UH Cleveland Medical Center
Sleep Apnea

Alan M. Sugar, MD
Boston University School of Medicine;Cape Cod Healthcare
Fungal Infections

Stephen Brian Sulkes, MD
Golisano Children’s Hospital at Strong, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Behavioral Problems in Children , Learning and Developmental Disorders

William D. Surkis, MD
Jefferson Medical College;Lankenau Medical Center
Immunization

Geeta K. Swamy, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Symptoms During Pregnancy

Moira Szilagyi, MD, PhD
University of Rochester;Monroe County Health Department
Social Issues Affecting Children and Their Families

Victor F. Tapson, MD
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center;Clinical Research for the Women’s Guild Lung Institute
Pulmonary Embolism

Joan B. Tarloff, PhD
University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
Adverse Drug Reactions

Joan B. Tarloff, PhD
University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
Adverse Drug Reactions

Mary Territo, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
White Blood Cell Disorders

The Manual's Editorial Staff,
At a Glance , Vaccination of Children , Diagnosis of Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders , Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) , Heart Failure , Eating Disorders , Fibrosis and Cirrhosis of the Liver , Glaucoma , Electrolyte Balance , Cranial Nerve Disorders , Sleep Apnea , Allergic Reactions and Other Hypersensitivity Disorders , Bites and Stings , Suicidal Behavior , Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) , Cataract , Symptoms of Eye Disorders , Acute Bronchitis , Alcoholic Liver Disease , High-Risk Pregnancy , Neurologic Disorders in Children , Latest Updates , Menopause , Tumors of the Liver , Learning and Developmental Disorders , Family Planning , Common Imaging Tests , Tumors of the Lungs , Pronunciations , Hepatitis , Anatomical Drawings , Tobacco Use , Retinal Disorders , Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders , Selected Links , Stones in the Urinary Tract , Weights and Measures , Symptoms of Gynecologic Disorders , Osteoporosis , Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorders , Complications of Pregnancy , Endometriosis , Common Medical Tests , Resources for Help and Information , Drug Use During Pregnancy , Benign Prostate Disorders , Mouth and Throat Disorders , Manifestations of Liver Disease , Multimedia , Noncancerous Skin Growths , Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Disorders of Blood Sugar Metabolism , Bone Disorders in Children , Delirium and Dementia , Vaginal Infections and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease , Psoriasis and Scaling Disorders , Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders in Children , Fibroids , Itching and Dermatitis , Pulmonary Embolism (PE) , Cholesterol Disorders , Overview of Cancer , Headaches , Pneumonia , Motion Sickness , Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) , Immunization , Prevention and Treatment of Cancer , Burns , Asthma , Bacterial Infections , Skin Cancers , Complications of Labor and Delivery , Stroke (CVA) , Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection , Hand Disorders , Temporomandibular Disorders , Poisoning , Cystic Fibrosis , Social Issues Affecting Children and Their Families , Pressure Sores , Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection , Sexual Dysfunction in Men , Breast Disorders , Mood Disorders , Kidney Failure , Seizure Disorders , Movement Disorders , Falls , Lymphomas , Respiratory Disorders in Children , Cancers of the Female Reproductive System , Anxiety and Stress-Related Disorders , Chronic Fatigue Syndrome , Head Injuries , Periodontal Diseases

David R. Thomas, MD
St. Louis University School of Medicine
Nutritional Support

Elizabeth Chabner Thompson, MD, MPH
BFFL Co
Prevention and Treatment of Cancer , Overview of Cancer

Dylan Tierney, MD, MPH
Harvard Medical School;Brigham and Women's Hospital
Tuberculosis and Leprosy

Oren Traub, MD, PhD
The Science of Medicine and Clinical Trials , Hospital Care , Medical Decision Making , Low Blood Pressure and Shock

Amal Trivedi, MD, MPH
Brown University
Health Care Coverage for Older People , Financial Issues in Health Care

Anne S. Tsao, MD
University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
Tumors of the Lungs

Debara L. Tucci, MD, MS
Duke University Medical Center
Biology of the Ears, Nose, and Throat , Symptoms of Ear Disorders

Allan R. Tunkel, MD, PhD
Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
Biology of Infectious Disease

James T. Ubertalli, DMD
Hingham, MA
Periodontal Diseases , Tooth Disorders

Nimish Vakil, MD
University of Madison School of Medicine and Public Health
Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease

Philbert Yuan Van, MD
Oregon Health and Science University
Abdominal Injuries

M. Cristina Victorio, MD
Northeast Ohio Medical University;Akron Children's Hospital
Neurologic Disorders in Children

Alexandra Villa-Forte, MD, MPH
Cleveland Clinic
Symptoms of Musculoskeletal Disorders , The Human Body , Diagnosis of Musculoskeletal Disorders , Biology of the Musculoskeletal System

Eva M. Vivian, PharmD, MS
University of Wisconsin School of Pharmacy
Brand-Name and Generic Drugs

Aaron E. Walfish, MD
Mount Sinai Medical Center
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) , Bezoars and Foreign Bodies of the Digestive Tract

B. Timothy Walsh, MD
College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University;New York State Psychiatric Institute
Eating Disorders

Andrew W. Walter, MS MD
Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University;A. I. duPont Hospital for Children
Blood Problems in Newborns

James Wayne Warnica, MD
Coronary Artery Disease

Michael R. Wasserman, MD
Rockport Healthcare Services, Los Angeles, CA
Nonspecific Symptoms , Making the Most of Health Care

Geoffrey A. Weinberg, MD
University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry;Golisano Children’s Hospital
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Children , Bacterial Infections in Infants and Children

Thomas G. Weiser, MD, MPH
Stanford University School of Medicine
Chest Injuries

Eric A. Weiss, MD
Stanford University Medical Center, Emeritus;Stanford University Fellowship in Wilderness Medicine
Heat Disorders

Gregory L. Wells, MD
Ada West Dermatology, St. Luke’s Boise Medical Center, and St. Alphonsus Regional Medical Center
Skin Cancers

John B. West, MD, PhD, DSc
University of California, San Diego
Altitude Diseases

Kendrick Alan Whitney, DPM
Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine
Foot Problems

James E. Wilberger, MD
Drexel University College of Medicine;Allegheny General Hospital;Allegheny Health Network Medical Education Consortium;Allegheny Health Network
Head Injuries , Spinal Injuries

Robert A. Wise, MD
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Steven E. Wolf, MD
University of Texas - Southwestern Medical Center
Burns

Adrienne Youdim, MD
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA;Cedars Sinai Medical Center
Overview of Nutrition , Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome

Lowell S. Young, MD
University of California at San Francisco;Kuzell Institute, California Pacific Medical Center
Bacteremia, Sepsis, and Septic Shock

Zhiwei Zhang, MD
Loma Linda University;VA Loma Linda Healthcare System
Blood Vessel Disorders of the Kidneys