Exercise-induced allergic reactions occur during or after exercise.
Exercise can trigger the following:
Typically, symptoms triggered by exercise—asthma or an anaphylactic reaction—occur after 5 to 10 minutes of vigorous exercise. Often, symptoms begin after exercise has stopped.
The diagnosis is based on the symptoms and their relationship to exercise. An exercise challenge test can also help doctors make the diagnosis. For this test, lung function is measured before and after exercise on a treadmill or stationary bicycle (see Diagnosis).
For people with exercise-induced asthma, the goal of treatment is to be able to exercise without symptoms. Becoming more physically fit may make symptoms less likely to develop during exercise. Inhaling a beta-adrenergic drug (such as those used to treat asthma—see Table: Drugs Commonly Used to Treat Asthma) about 15 minutes before starting to exercise often helps prevent reactions. Cromolyn, usually taken through an inhaler, may be helpful.
For people with asthma, taking the drugs usually used to control asthma often prevents symptoms from developing during exercise. For some people with asthma, taking drugs to treat asthma and gradually increasing the intensity and duration of exercise enables them to tolerate exercise.
People who have had an exercise-induced anaphylactic reaction should avoid the form of exercise that triggered the attack. If eating a specific food before exercise triggers symptoms, they should not eat the food before exercise. A self-injecting syringe of epinephrine should always be carried for prompt emergency treatment. Exercising with other people is recommended.
Last full review/revision May 2014 by Peter J. Delves, PhD