Most children sleep for a stretch of at least 5 hours by age 3 months but then experience periods of night waking later in the first years of life, often associated with illness. As they get older, the amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increases. Families vary in their attitudes about children sleeping with parents and other sleep habits. It is important that parents be open with each other about their preferences to avoid stress and mixed messages to their children.
For most children, sleep problems are intermittent or temporary and often do not need treatment.
Nightmares are frightening dreams that occur during REM sleep. Children having a nightmare can awaken fully and can vividly recall the details of the dream. Nightmares are not a cause for alarm, unless they occur very often. They can occur more often during times of stress, or even when children have seen a movie or television program containing frightening or aggressive content. If nightmares occur often, parents can keep a diary to see whether they can identify the cause.
Night Terrors and Sleepwalking
Night terrors are episodes of incomplete awakening with extreme anxiety shortly after falling asleep. They occur in non-REM sleep and are most common between the ages of 3 and 8. The child screams and appears frightened, with a rapid heart rate and rapid breathing. The child seems to be unaware of the parents' presence, may thrash around violently and does not respond to comforting, and may talk but be unable to answer questions. Usually, the child returns to sleep after a few minutes. Unlike with nightmares, the child cannot recall these episodes. Night terrors are dramatic because the child screams and is inconsolable during the episode. About one third of children with night terrors also experience sleepwalking (rising from bed and walking around while apparently asleep, also called somnambulism). About 15% of children between the ages of 5 and 12 have at least one episode of sleepwalking.
Night terrors and sleepwalking (see also Sleep Disorders: Parasomnias) almost always stop without treatment, although occasional episodes may occur for years. Usually, no treatment is needed, but if a disorder persists into adolescence or adulthood and is severe, treatment may be necessary. In children who need treatment, night terrors may sometimes respond to a sedative or certain antidepressants; however, these drugs are potent and can have side effects.
Resistance to Going to Bed
Children, particularly between the ages of 1 and 2, often resist going to bed due to separation anxiety (see Symptoms in Infants and Children: Separation and Stranger Anxiety), whereas older children may be attempting to control more aspects of their environment. Young children often cry when left alone in their crib, or they climb out and seek their parents. Another common cause of bedtime resistance is delayed sleep start time. These situations arise when children are allowed to stay up later and sleep later than usual for enough nights to reset their internal clock to a later sleep start time. It can be difficult to move bedtime earlier, but brief treatment with an over-the-counter antihistamine or melatonin can help children reset their clock.
Resistance to going to bed is not helped if parents stay in the room at length to provide comfort or let children get out of bed. In fact, these responses reinforce night waking, in which children attempt to reproduce the conditions under which they fell asleep. To avoid these problems, a parent may have to sit quietly in the hallway in sight of the child and make sure the child stays in bed. The child then establishes a sleep-onset routine of falling asleep alone and learns that getting out of bed is discouraged. The child also learns that the parents are available but will not provide more stories or play. Eventually, the child settles down and goes to sleep. Providing the child with an attachment object (like a teddy bear) is often helpful. A small night light, white noise, or both also can be comforting.
Awakening During the Night
Everyone awakens multiple times each night. Most, however, usually fall back to sleep on their own. Children often experience repeated night awakening after a move, an illness, or another stressful event. Sleeping problems may be worsened when children take long naps late in the afternoon or are overstimulated by playing before bedtime. Sleep sometimes is disrupted by restless leg syndrome (see Sleep Disorders: Periodic Limb Movement Disorder and Restless Legs Syndrome), and a few children, particularly those who thrash and snore, may have obstructive sleep apnea (see Sleep Apnea).
Allowing the child to sleep with the parents because of the night awakening reinforces the behavior. Playing with or feeding the child during the night, spanking, and scolding also are counterproductive measures. Returning the child to bed with simple reassurance is usually more effective. A bedtime routine that includes reading a brief story, offering a favorite doll or blanket, and using a small night-light (for children who are older than 3) is often helpful. To decrease the likelihood of the child awakening, it is important that the conditions under which the child awakens during the night are the same as those under which the child falls asleep. Parents and other caregivers should try to keep to a routine each night, so that the child learns what is expected. If children are physically healthy, allowing them to cry for a few minutes often allows them to settle down by themselves, which will diminish the night awakening.
Last full review/revision February 2009 by Stephen Brian Sulkes, MD