Symptoms or the physical examination may suggest a cardiovascular disorder. For confirmation, selected noninvasive and invasive tests are usually done (see Cardiovascular Tests and Procedures).
A thorough history is fundamental; it cannot be replaced by testing. The history must include a thorough systems review because many symptoms apparently occurring in other systems (eg, dyspnea, indigestion) are often caused by cardiac disease. A family history is taken because many cardiac disorders (eg, coronary artery disease, systemic hypertension, bicuspid aortic valve, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, mitral valve prolapse) have a heritable basis.
Serious cardiac symptoms include chest pain or discomfort, dyspnea (see Symptoms of Pulmonary Disorders: Dyspnea), weakness, fatigue, palpitations, light-headedness, sense of an impending faint, syncope, and edema. These symptoms commonly occur in more than one cardiac disorder and in noncardiac disorders.
Last full review/revision April 2009 by Paul H. Tanser, MD
Content last modified February 2012