Fractures are divided by depth into those that
If the fracture involves only the enamel, patients notice rough or sharp edges but are otherwise asymptomatic. Dental treatment to smooth the edges and improve appearance is elective.
If dentin is exposed but not the dental pulp, patients usually exhibit sensitivity to cold air and water. Treatment is a mild analgesic and referral to a dentist. Dental treatment consists of restoration of the tooth by a composite (white filling) or, if the fracture is extensive, a dental crown, to cover the exposed dentin.
If the pulp is exposed (indicated by bleeding from the tooth) or if the tooth is mobile, dental referral is urgent. Dental treatment usually involves a root canal.
Root fractures and alveolar fractures are not visible, but the tooth (or several teeth) may be mobile. Dental referral is also urgent for stabilization by bonding an orthodontic arch wire or polyethylene line onto several adjacent teeth.
Avulsed primary teeth are not replaced because they typically become necrotic, then infected. They may also become ankylosed and do not exfoliate, thereby interfering with the eruption of the permanent tooth.
If a secondary tooth is avulsed, the patient should replace it in its socket immediately and seek dental care to stabilize it. If this cannot be done, the tooth should be kept immersed in milk or wrapped in a moistened paper towel and brought to a dentist for replacement and stabilization. The tooth should not be scrubbed, because scrubbing may remove viable periodontal ligament fibers, which aid in reattachment. A patient with an avulsed tooth should take an antibiotic for several days. If the avulsed tooth cannot be found, it may have been aspirated, embedded in soft tissue, or swallowed. A chest x-ray may be needed to rule out aspiration, but a swallowed tooth is harmless.
A partially avulsed tooth that is repositioned and stabilized quickly usually is permanently retained. A completely avulsed tooth may be permanently retained if replaced in the socket with minimal handling within 30 min to 1 h. Both partial and complete avulsions usually ultimately require root canal therapy because the pulp tissue becomes necrotic. When replacement of the tooth is delayed, the long-term retention rate drops, and root resorption eventually occurs. Nevertheless, a patient may be able to use the tooth for several years.
Last full review/revision September 2012 by David F. Murchison, DDS, MMS
Content last modified September 2013