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Introduction to Orbital Diseases

by James Garrity, MD

Orbital diseases may be vascular, thyroid-related (Graves disease), infectious (see Preseptal and Orbital Cellulitis), inflammatory (see Inflammatory Orbital Disease), or neoplastic (see Tumors of the Orbit). Cavernous sinus thrombosis (see Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis) causes many of the same symptoms and signs as orbital diseases. Infiltrative ophthalmopathy due to Graves disease, the most frequent cause of orbital disease, is discussed in Etiology. Orbital fractures are discussed in Fractures of the Jaw and Contiguous Structures. (For anatomy of the orbit, see see Figure: Cross-section of the eye..)

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