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Intra-amniotic infection (formerly called chorioamnionitis) is infection of the chorion, amnion, amniotic fluid, placenta, or a combination. Infection increases risk of obstetric complications and problems in the fetus and neonate. Symptoms include fever, uterine tenderness, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and maternal and fetal tachycardia. Diagnosis is by specific clinical criteria or, for subclinical infection, analysis of amniotic fluid. Treatment includes broad-spectrum antibiotics and delivery.
Intra-amniotic infection typically results from an infection that ascends through the genital tract.
Risk factors include the following:
Meconium-stained amniotic fluid
Internal fetal or uterine monitoring
Presence of genital tract pathogens (eg, those that cause sexually transmitted diseases or bacterial vaginosis, group B streptococci)
Multiple digital examinations during labor in women with ruptured membranes
Preterm premature rupture of membranes
Intra-amniotic infection can cause as well as result from preterm premature rupture of membranes or preterm delivery. This infection accounts for 50% of deliveries before 30 wk gestation. It occurs in 33% of women who have preterm labor with intact membranes, 40% who have premature rupture of membranes (PROM) and are having contractions when admitted, and 75% who go into labor after admission for PROM.
Fetal complications include increased risk of the following:
Maternal complications include increased risk of the following:
Septic shock, coagulopathy, and adult respiratory distress syndrome are also risks but are uncommon if infection is treated.
Diagnosis usually requires a maternal temperature of > 38° C (> 100.4° F) plus ≥ 2 of the following:
Presence of a single symptom or sign, which may have other causes, is less reliable. For example, uterine pain and tenderness may result from abruptio placentae. Maternal tachycardia may be due to pain, epidural anesthesia, or drugs (eg, ephedrine); fetal tachycardia may be due to maternal use of drugs or fetal hypoxemia. Maternal and fetal heart rates also increase during fever. However, if intra-amniotic infection is absent, heart rates return to baseline as these conditions resolve. If fetal or maternal tachycardia is disproportionate to or occurs without such conditions or if it persists despite resolution of these conditions, intra-amniotic infection is suspected.
Refractory preterm labor (persisting despite tocolysis) may suggest subclinical infection. If membranes rupture prematurely before term, clinicians should also consider subclinical infection so that they can determine whether induction of labor is indicated.
Amniocentesis with culture of amniotic fluid is the best way to diagnose subclinical infection. The following fluid findings suggest infection:
Other diagnostic tests for subclinical infection are under study.
Treatment is broad-spectrum IV antibiotics plus delivery. A typical intrapartum antibiotic regimen is ampicillin 2 g IV q 6 h plus gentamicin 1.5 mg/kg IV q 8 h. How long antibiotics are given varies, depending on individual circumstances (eg, how high the fever was, when the fever last spiked in relation to delivery). The antibiotics reduce risk of morbidity due to infection for mother and neonate.
Risk of intra-amniotic infection is decreased by avoiding or minimizing digital pelvic examinations in women with preterm PROM (see Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM)). Broad-spectrum antibiotics are also given to women with preterm PROM to prolong latency until delivery and decrease risk of infant morbidity and mortality.
Intra-amniotic infection can be subclinical and relatively asymptomatic.
Consider the diagnosis when fetal or maternal tachycardia or refractory preterm labor is present, as well as when women have the more classic symptoms of infection (eg, fever, discharge, pain, tenderness).
Consider analyzing and culturing amniotic fluid if women have refractory preterm labor or preterm PROM.
Treat intra-amniotic infection with broad-spectrum antibiotics plus delivery.
Drug NameSelect Brand Names
ampicillinNo US brand name
* This is a professional Version *