* This is the Professional Version. *
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB)
(Functional Uterine Bleeding)
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is abnormal uterine bleeding that, after examination and ultrasonography, cannot be attributed to the usual causes (structural gynecologic abnormalities, cancer, inflammation, systemic disorders, pregnancy, complications of pregnancy, use of oral contraceptives or certain drugs). Treatment is usually with hormone therapy, such as oral contraceptives, or with NSAIDs.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), the most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding, occurs most often in women > 45 (> 50% of cases) and in adolescents (20% of cases).
About 90% of cases are anovulatory; 10% are ovulatory.
During an anovulatory cycle, the corpus luteum does not form. Thus, the normal cyclical secretion of progesterone does not occur, and estrogen stimulates the endometrium unopposed. Without progesterone, the endometrium continues to proliferate, eventually outgrowing its blood supply; it then sloughs incompletely and bleeds irregularly and sometimes profusely or for a long time. When this abnormal process occurs repeatedly, the endometrium can become hyperplastic, sometimes with atypical or cancerous cells.
In ovulatory DUB, progesterone secretion is prolonged; irregular shedding of the endometrium results, probably because estrogen levels remain low, near the threshold for bleeding (as occurs during menses). In obese women, ovulatory DUB can occur if estrogen levels are high, resulting in amenorrhea alternating with irregular or prolonged bleeding.
Anovulatory DUB can result from any disorder or condition that causes anovulation (see Table: Some Causes of Anovulatory Amenorrhea). Anovulation is most often
Sometimes anovulation results from hypothyroidism.
During perimenopause, DUB may be an early sign of ovarian insufficiency or failure; follicles are still developing but, despite increasing levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), do not produce enough estrogen to trigger ovulation. About 20% of women with endometriosis have anovulatory DUB due to unknown mechanisms.
Ovulatory DUB may occur in
Other causes are a short follicular phase and luteal phase dysfunction (due to inadequate progesterone stimulation of the endometrium); a rapid decrease in estrogen before ovulation can cause spotting.
Compared with typical menses, bleeding may
Occur more frequently (menses < 21 days apart—polymenorrhea)
Involve more blood loss (> 7 days or > 80 mL) during menses (menorrhagia, or hypermenorrhea)
Occur frequently and irregularly between menses (metrorrhagia)
Involve more blood loss during menses and frequent and irregular bleeding between menses (menometrorrhagia)
Ovulatory DUB tends to cause excessive bleeding during regular menstrual cycles. Women may have other symptoms of ovulation, such as premenstrual symptoms, breast tenderness, midcycle cramping pain (mittelschmerz), a change in basal body temperature after ovulation (see Ovulatory Dysfunction), and sometimes dysmenorrhea.
Anovulatory DUB occurs at unpredictable times and in unpredictable patterns and is not accompanied by cyclic changes in basal body temperature.
Women should be evaluated for DUB when the amount or timing of vaginal bleeding is inconsistent with normal menses.
DUB is a diagnosis of exclusion; other conditions that can cause similar bleeding must be excluded (see Vaginal Bleeding). Pregnancy should be excluded, even in young adolescents and perimenopausal women. Coagulation disorders should be considered, particularly in adolescents who have anemia or require hospitalization for bleeding. Regular cycles with prolonged or excessive bleeding (possible ovulatory DUB) suggest structural abnormalities.
Several tests are typically done:
All women of reproductive age should have a pregnancy test.
CBC is routinely done. However, Hct may be normal in women who report heavy bleeding, or anemia may be severe in women who regularly have heavy periods. The serum ferritin level, which reflects body iron stores, is measured if women have chronic, heavy bleeding.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are usually measured, and prolactin levels are measured, even when galactorrhea is absent, because thyroid disorders and hyperprolactinemia are common causes of abnormal bleeding.
To determine whether bleeding is anovulatory or ovulatory, some clinicians measure serum progesterone levels during the luteal phase (after day 14 of a normal menstrual cycle or after basal body temperature increases, as occurs during this phase). A level of ≥ 3 ng/mL (≥ 9.75 nmol/L) suggests that ovulation has occurred.
Other tests are done depending on results of the history and physical examination and include the following:
Coagulation tests if women have risk factors for coagulation disorders, bruising, or hemorrhage
Liver function tests if a liver disorder is suspected
Testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels if polycystic ovary syndrome is suspected
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels if primary ovarian insufficiency is possible
A cervical cancer screening test (eg, Papanicolaou [Pap] test, HPV test) if results are out-of-date
Testing for Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia sp if pelvic inflammatory disease or cervicitis is suspected
If all clinically indicated tests are normal, the diagnosis is dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
Transvaginal ultrasonography is done if women have any of the following:
Age ≥ 35
Risk factors for endometrial cancer (eg, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, polycystic ovary syndrome, chronic eugonadal anovulation, hirsutism, other conditions associated with prolonged unopposed estrogen exposure)
Bleeding that continues despite use of empiric hormone therapy
Pelvic organs that cannot be examined adequately during the physical examination
Clinical evidence that suggests abnormalities in the ovaries or uterus
These criteria include almost all women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
Transvaginal ultrasonography can detect structural abnormalities, including most polyps, fibroids, other masses, endometrial cancer, and any areas of focal thickening in the endometrium. If focal thickening is detected, further testing may be needed to identify smaller intrauterine masses (eg, small endometrial polyps, submucous myomas). Sonohysterography (ultrasonography after saline is infused into the uterus) is useful in evaluating such abnormalities; it can be used to determine whether hysteroscopy, a more invasive test, is indicated and to plan resection of intrauterine masses. Or hysteroscopy may be done without sonohysteroscopy.
In endometrial sampling, only about 25% of the endometrium is analyzed, but sensitivity for detecting abnormal cells is about 97%. This test is usually recommended to rule out hyperplasia or cancer in women with any of the following:
Age > 35 yr with one or more risk factors for endometrial cancer (see above)
Age < 35 yr with multiple risk factors for endometrial cancer (see above)
Bleeding that is persistent, irregular, or heavy
Irregular cycles that suggest chronic anovulatory bleeding
Endometrial thickness that is > 4 mm, focal, or irregular, detected during transvaginal ultrasongraphy
Inconclusive ultrasonography findings
Directed biopsy (with hysteroscopy) may be done to visualize the endometrial cavity directly and target the abnormal tissue. Most endometrial biopsy specimens contain proliferative or dyssynchronous endometrium, which confirms anovulation because no secretory endometrium is found.
Nonhormonal treatments have fewer risks and adverse effects than hormone therapy and can be given intermittently, when bleeding occurs. They are used mainly for heavy regular bleeding (menorrhagia). Choices include
Hormone therapy (eg, oral contraceptives, progestogens) is often tried first in perimenopausal women. This therapy does the following:
Hormone therapy is usually given until bleeding has been controlled for a few months.
Oral contraceptives (OCs) are commonly given. OCs, used cyclically or continuously, can control dysfunctional bleeding. Limited data suggest that they do the following:
Combination formulations consisting of an estrogen and a progestin or a progestin alone may be used. Risks of an OC depend on the type of OC and on patient factors.
Progesteroneor another progestin can be used alone in the following cases:
Withdrawal bleeding may be more predictable with cyclic progestin therapy (medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg/day po or norethindrone acetate 2.5 to 5 mg/day po) given for 21 days/mo than with a combination OC. Cyclic natural (micronized) progesterone 200 mg/day for 21 days/mo may be used, particularly if pregnancy is possible; however, it may cause drowsiness and does not decrease blood loss as much as a progestin.
If patients using cyclic progestins or progesterone wish to prevent pregnancy, contraception should be used. Contraceptive options include
Other treatments that are occasionally used to treat DUB include
Danazol: It reduces menstrual blood loss (by causing endometrial atrophy) but has many androgenic adverse effects, which may be lessened by using lower doses or a vaginal formulation. To be effective, danazol must be taken continuously, usually for about 3 mo. It is usually used when other forms of therapy are contraindicated.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists: These drugs suppress ovarian hormone production and cause amenorrhea; they are used to shrink fibroids or the endometrium preoperatively. However, their hypoestrogenic adverse effects (eg, bone loss) limit their use.
Desmopressin: It is used as a last resort to treat DUB in patients who have a coagulation disorder; it rapidly increases levels of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII for about 6 h.
Ergot derivatives are not recommended for treatment of DUB because they are rarely effective.
If pregnancy is desired and bleeding is not heavy, ovulation induction with clomiphene (50 mg po on days 5 through 9 of the menstrual cycle) can be tried.
Hysteroscopy with D & C may be therapeutic as well as diagnostic; it may be the treatment of choice when anovulatory bleeding is severe or when hormone therapy is ineffective. Structural causes such as polyps or fibroids may be identified or removed during hysteroscopy. This procedure may decrease bleeding but, in some women, causes amenorrhea due to endometrial scarring (Asherman syndrome).
Endometrial ablation (eg, laser, rollerball, resectoscopic, thermal, or freezing) may help control bleeding in 60 to 80%. Ablation is less invasive than hysterectomy, and the recovery time is shorter. Ablation may be repeated if heavy bleeding recurs after ablation is initially effective. If this treatment does not control bleeding or if bleeding continues to recur, the cause may be adenomyosis and thus is not DUB. Endometrial ablation does not prevent pregnancy. Pregnancy rates may be as high as 5% after ablation. Ablation causes scarring which may make sampling the endometrium difficult later.
Hysterectomy, abdominal or vaginal, may be recommended for patients who decline hormone therapy or who, despite other treatments, have symptomatic anemia or poor quality of life caused by persistent, irregular bleeding.
Emergency measures are needed only rarely, when bleeding is very heavy. Patients are stabilized hemodynamically with IV crystalloid fluid, blood products, and other measures as needed. If bleeding persists, a bladder catheter is inserted into the uterus and inflated with 30 to 60 mL of water to tamponade the bleeding. Once patients are stable, hormone therapy is used to control bleeding.
Very rarely, in patients with very heavy bleeding due to anovulatory DUB, conjugated estrogens 25 mg IV q 4 to 6 h for a total of 4 doses may be used. This therapy stops bleeding in about 70% of patients but increases risk of thrombosis. Immediately afterward, patients are given a combination OC, which may be continued until bleeding has been controlled for a few months.
In postmenopausal women, atypical adenomatous endometrial hyperplasia is usually treated with hysterectomy.
In premenopausal women, this disorder may be treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate 20 to 40 mg po once/day for 3 to 6 mo or a levonorgestrel-releasing IUD (1). If repeat endometrial sampling indicates resolution of hyperplasia, women may be given cyclic medroxyprogesterone acetate (5 to 10 mg po once/day for 10 to 14 days each month) or, if pregnancy is desired, clomiphene. If sampling shows persistent or progressive atypical hyperplasia, hysterectomy is necessary.
More benign cystic or adenomatous hyperplasia can usually be treated with high-dose cyclic progestin therapy (eg, cyclic medroxyprogesterone acetate) or a progestin- or levonorgestrel-releasing IUD; sampling is repeated after about 3 mo.
Anovulatory DUB is the most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding.
Test for treatable causes of bleeding; tests may include a pregnancy test, CBC, measurement of hormone levels (TSH, prolactin, progesterone), and often ultrasonography and endometrial sampling.
In women at risk, check for and treat endometrial hyperplasia.
If drugs are needed to control bleeding, prescribe NSAIDs, tranexamic acid, OCs, or other hormones, which are usually effective.
Drug NameSelect Trade
DanazolNo US brand name
levonorgestrelMIRENA, PLAN B
estradiolESTRADERM, ESTROGEL, VIVELLE
* This is the Professional Version. *