Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is characterized by irritability, anxiety, emotional lability, depression, edema, breast pain, and headaches, occurring during the 7 to 10 days before and usually ending a few hours after onset of menses. Diagnosis is clinical, often based on the patient's daily recording of symptoms. Treatment is symptomatic and includes diet, drugs, and counseling.
About 20 to 50% of women of reproductive age have PMS; about 5% have a severe form of PMS called premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
The cause is unclear. Possible causes or contributing factors include multiple endocrine factors (eg, hypoglycemia, other changes in carbohydrate metabolism, hyperprolactinemia, fluctuations in levels of circulating estrogen and progesterone, abnormal responses to estrogen and progesterone, excess aldosterone or ADH), and a genetic predisposition. Estrogen and progesterone can cause transitory fluid retention, as can excess aldosterone or ADH.
Serotonin deficiency is thought to contribute because women who are most affected by PMS have lower serotonin levels and because SSRIs (which increase serotonin) sometimes relieve symptoms of PMS. Mg and Ca deficiencies may contribute.
Symptoms and Signs
Type and intensity of symptoms vary from woman to woman and from cycle to cycle. Symptoms last a few hours to ≥ 10 days, usually ending when menses begins. Symptoms may become more severe during stress or perimenopause. In perimenopausal women, symptoms may persist until after menses.
The most common symptoms are irritability, anxiety, agitation, anger, insomnia, difficulty concentrating, lethargy, depression, and severe fatigue. Fluid retention causes edema, transient weight gain, and breast fullness and pain. Pelvic heaviness or pressure and backache may occur. Some women, particularly younger ones, have dysmenorrhea when menses begins. Other nonspecific symptoms may include headache, vertigo, paresthesias of the extremities, syncope, palpitations, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and changes in appetite. Acne and neurodermatitis may also occur. Existing skin disorders may worsen, as may respiratory problems (eg, allergies, infection) and eye problems (eg, visual disturbances, conjunctivitis).
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD):
Some women have severe PMS symptoms that occur regularly and only during the 2nd half of the menstrual cycle; symptoms end with menses or shortly after. Mood is markedly depressed, and anxiety, irritability, and emotional lability are pronounced. Suicidal thoughts may be present. Interest in daily activities is greatly decreased. In contrast to PMS, PMDD causes symptoms that are severe enough to interfere with routine daily activities or overall functioning. PMDD is a severely distressing, disabling, and often underdiagnosed.
PMS is diagnosed based on physical symptoms (eg, bloating, weight gain, breast tenderness, swelling of hands and feet). Women may be asked to record their symptoms daily. Physical examination and laboratory testing are not helpful.
If PMDD is suspected, women are asked to rate their symptoms daily for ≥ 2 cycles to determine whether severe symptoms occur regularly. For PMDD to be diagnosed, women must have ≥ 5 of the following symptoms for most of the week before menses and at least one symptom must be from the first 4:
Also, the symptom pattern must have occurred for most of the previous 12 mo, and symptoms must be severe enough to interfere with daily activities and function.
Patients with symptoms of depression are evaluated using a depression inventory or are referred to a mental health care practitioner for formal evaluation.
PMS can be difficult to treat. No single treatment has proven efficacy for all women, and few woman have complete relief with any single type of treatment. Treatment can thus require trial and error, as well as patience.
Treatment is symptomatic, beginning with adequate rest and sleep, regular exercise, and activities that are relaxing. Regular exercise may help alleviate bloating as well as irritability, anxiety, and insomnia. Yoga helps some women. Dietary changes—increasing protein, decreasing sugar, and taking vitamin B complex (especially pyridoxine, a form of vitamin B6) or Mg supplements—may help, as may counseling and avoiding stressful activities. Other possible strategies include avoiding certain foods and drinks (eg, cola, coffee, hot dogs, potato chips, canned goods) and eating more of others (eg, fruits, vegetables, milk, complex carbohydrates, high-fiber foods, low-fat meats, foods high in Ca and vitamin D). Ca and vitamin D supplements may also help. Fluid retention may be relieved by reducing Na intake and taking a diuretic (eg, spironolactone 100 mg po once/day) just before symptoms are expected. However, minimizing fluid retention and taking a diuretic do not relieve all symptoms and may have no effect.
NSAIDs can help relieve aches, pains, and dysmenorrhea. SSRIs (eg, fluoxetine 20 mg po once/day) are the drugs of choice for relief of anxiety, irritability, and other emotional symptoms, particularly if stress cannot be avoided. SSRIs effectively relieve symptoms of PMDD. Clomipramine, given for the full cycle or a half-cycle, effectively relieves emotional symptoms, as does nefazodone, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Anxiolytics may help but are usually less desirable because dependence or addiction is possible.
For some women, hormonal manipulation is effective. Options include
Rarely, for very severe or refractory symptoms, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (eg, leuprolide 3.75 mg IM, goserelin 3.6 mg sc q mo) with low-dose estrogen/progestin (eg, oral estradiol 0.5 mg once/day plus micronized progesterone 100 mg at bedtime) is given to minimize cyclic fluctuations.
In women with severe symptoms, bilateral oophorectomy may alleviate symptoms because it eliminates menstrual cycles.
Bromocriptine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors are not useful.
Last full review/revision August 2012 by JoAnn V. Pinkerton, MD
Content last modified November 2012