Diphyllobothriasis is infection with the intestinal tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium latum, a parasite of freshwater fish. Treatment is with praziquantel.
D. latum is the largest parasite of humans (up to 10 m in length). It and Sparganum mansoni are the only human tapeworms with aquatic life cycles. In freshwater, eggs of D. latum from human feces hatch into free-swimming larvae, which are ingested by microcrustaceans. The microcrustaceans are ingested by fish, in which the larvae become infective.
Diphyllobothriasis occurs worldwide, especially where cool lakes are contaminated by sewage. Infections in the US and northern Europe occur in people who eat raw freshwater fish. Infection is less common with current sewage treatment.
Infection is usually asymptomatic, but mild GI symptoms may be noted. Fish tapeworms take up dietary vitamin B12, occasionally resulting in vitamin B12 deficiency and megaloblastic anemia.
Diagnosis is by identification of characteristic operculated eggs or broad proglottids in stool.
Treatment is with a single oral dose of praziquantel 5 to 10 mg/kg. Alternatively, a single 2-g dose of niclosamide is given as 4 tablets (500 mg each) that are chewed one at a time and swallowed. For children, the dose is 50 mg/kg once.
Vitamin B12 may be needed to correct the anemia. Thorough cooking of freshwater fish or freezing it at −10° C (14° F) for 48 h prevents infection.
Last full review/revision December 2009 by Richard D. Pearson, MD
Content last modified February 2012