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Cervical Spondylosis and Spondylotic Cervical Myelopathy
Cervical spondylosis is osteoarthritis of the cervical spine causing stenosis of the canal and sometimes cervical myelopathy due to encroachment of bony osteoarthritic growths (osteophytes) on the lower cervical spinal cord, sometimes with involvement of lower cervical nerve roots (radiculomyelopathy).
Cervical spondylosis due to osteoarthritis is common. Occasionally, particularly when the spinal canal is congenitally narrow (< 10 mm), osteoarthritis leads to stenosis of the canal and bony impingement on the cord, causing compression and myelopathy (functional disturbance of the spinal cord). Hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum can aggravate this effect. Osteophytes in the neural foramina, most commonly between C5 and C6 or C6 and C7, can cause radiculopathy (a nerve root disorder—see also Nerve Root Disorders). Manifestations vary according to the neural structures involved but commonly include pain.
Cord compression commonly causes gradual spastic paresis, paresthesias, or both in the hands and feet and may cause hyperreflexia. Neurologic deficits may be asymmetric, nonsegmental, and aggravated by cough or Valsalva maneuvers. After trauma, people with cervical spondylosis may develop a central cord syndrome. Eventually, muscle atrophy and flaccid paresis may develop in the upper extremities at the level of the lesion, with spasticity below the level of the lesion.
Nerve root compression commonly causes early radicular pain; later, there may be weakness, hyporeflexia, and muscle atrophy.
For patients with cord involvement, cervical laminectomy is usually needed; a posterior approach can relieve the compression but leaves anterior compressive osteophytes and may result in spinal instability and kyphosis. Thus, an anterior approach with spinal fusion is generally preferred. Patients with only radiculopathy may try nonsurgical treatment with NSAIDs and a soft cervical collar; if this approach is ineffective, surgical decompression may be required.
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