Only 1 to 3% of biologically active trivalent chromium (Cr) is absorbed. Normal plasma levels are 0.05 to 0.50 μg/L (1.0 to 9.6 nmol/L). Chromium potentiates insulin activity and increases the growth rate in undernourished children. Supplements do not enhance muscle size or strength in men.
Four patients receiving long-term TPN developed possible chromium deficiency, with glucose intolerance, weight loss, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms resolved in 3 who were given trivalent chromium 150 to 250 mg.
High doses of trivalent chromium given parenterally cause skin irritation, but lower doses given orally are not toxic. Exposure to hexavalent chromium (CrO3) in the workplace may irritate the skin, lungs, and GI tract and may cause perforation of the nasal septum and lung carcinoma.
Last full review/revision August 2008 by Larry E. Johnson, MD, PhD
Content last modified February 2012