Manganese (Mn), necessary for healthy bone structure, is a component of several enzyme systems, including manganese-specific glycosyltransferases and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Median intake is between 1.6 and 2.3 mg/day; absorption is 5 to 10%.
Deficiency has not been conclusively documented, although one experimental case in a volunteer resulted in transient dermatitis, hypocholesterolemia, and increased alkaline phosphatase levels.
Toxicity is usually limited to people who mine and refine ore; prolonged exposure causes neurologic symptoms resembling those of parkinsonism or Wilson disease.
Last full review/revision April 2013 by Larry E. Johnson, MD, PhD
Content last modified August 2013