Anorexia or loss of appetite is common among dying patients (see The Dying Patient: Anorexia). Behavioral measures (eg, using flexible feeding schedules, feeding slowly, giving small portions or favorite or strongly flavored foods) can often increase oral intake. A small amount of a favorite alcoholic drink, given 30 min before meals, may also help. Certain antidepressants, megestrol acetate, and dronabinol may stimulate appetite. Metoclopramide enhances gastric emptying, but it may take 1 to 2 wk to reach peak effectiveness.
Advanced dementia eventually leads to inability to eat; sometimes affected patients are given tube feedings. However, there is no convincing evidence that tube feedings prolong life, provide comfort, improve function, or prevent complications (eg, aspiration, pressure ulcers).
Tube feedings and parenteral nutrition cause discomfort and are usually not indicated for patients who are dying or too demented to eat. Forgoing nutritional support may be difficult for family members to accept, but they should understand that patients are usually more comfortable eating and drinking as they choose. Sips of water and easy-to-swallow foods may be useful. Supportive care, including good oral hygiene (eg, brushing the teeth, moistening the oral cavity with swabs and ice chips as needed, applying lip salve), can physically and psychologically comfort the patients and the family members who provide the care.
Counseling may help family members who are dealing with anxieties about whether to use invasive nutritional support.
Last full review/revision April 2013 by David R. Thomas, MD
Content last modified April 2013