Biotin acts as a coenzyme for carboxylation reactions essential to fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Adequate intake for adults is 30 μg/day. Pantothenic acid is widely distributed in foods; it is an essential component of coenzyme A. Adults probably require about 5 mg/day. A beneficial role for pantothenic acid supplementation in lipid metabolism, RA, or athletic performance remains unproved. Isolated deficiency of biotin or pantothenic acid virtually never occurs.
Last full review/revision December 2012 by Larry E. Johnson, MD, PhD
Content last modified August 2013