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Overview of Congenital Genitourinary Anomalies

by Ronald Rabinowitz, MD, Jimena Cubillos, MD

Congenital anatomic anomalies of the GU tract are more common than those of any other organ system. Urinary tract anomalies predispose patients to many complications, including infection, obstruction, stasis, calculus formation, and impaired renal function. Genital anomalies may cause voiding or sexual dysfunction, impaired fertility, psychosocial difficulties, or a combination. GU anomalies frequently require surgical reconstruction.

Many GU anomalies are diagnosed in utero via routine prenatal ultrasonography. Some congenital renal anomalies (eg, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and medullary cystic disease [see Cystic Kidney Disease], hereditary nephritis [see Hereditary Nephritis]) typically do not manifest until adulthood.

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