Coarctation of the aorta is a localized narrowing of the aortic lumen that results in upper-extremity hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and malperfusion of the abdominal organs and lower extremities. Symptoms vary with the anomaly's severity and range from headache, chest pain, cold extremities, fatigue, and leg claudication to fulminant heart failure and shock. A soft bruit may be heard over the coarctation site. Diagnosis is by echocardiography or by CT or MR angiography. Treatment is balloon angioplasty with stent placement, or surgical correction.
Coarctation of the aorta accounts for 6 to 8% of congenital heart anomalies. It occurs in 10 to 20% of patients with Turner's syndrome. The male:female ratio is 2:1.
Coarctation of the aorta usually occurs at the proximal thoracic aorta just beyond the left subclavian artery. It rarely involves the abdominal aorta. Coarctation may occur alone or with various other congenital anomalies (eg, bicuspid aortic valve, ventricular septal defect, aortic stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, mitral valve disorders, intracerebral aneurysms).
Physiologic consequences include left ventricular pressure overload, left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertension in the upper part of the body including the brain, and malperfusion of the abdominal organs and lower extremities. Malperfusion of the intestines increases the risk of sepsis due to enteric organisms.
Untreated coarctation may result in left ventricular failure, rupture of the aorta, intracranial hemorrhage, hypertensive encephalopathy, and hypertensive cardiovascular disease during adulthood.
Symptoms and Signs
If coarctation is significant, circulatory shock with renal insufficiency (oliguria or anuria) and metabolic acidosis may develop in the first 7 to 10 days of life and may mimic findings of other systemic disorders such as sepsis.
Less severe coarctation may be asymptomatic during infancy. Subtle symptoms (eg, headache; chest pain, fatigue, and leg claudication during physical activities) may be present as children age. Hypertension is often present, but heart failure (HF) rarely develops after the neonatal period. Rarely, intracerebral aneurysms rupture, resulting in subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage.
Typical physical examination findings include hypertension in the upper extremities, diminished or delayed femoral pulses, and low or unobtainable arterial BP in the lower extremities. A grade 2 to 3/6 ejection systolic murmur is often present at the upper left sternal border, left axilla, and sometimes most prominently in the left interscapular area. An apical ejection click is present if a bicuspid aortic valve is also present. Dilated intercostal collateral arteries may cause a continuous murmur in the intercostal spaces. Affected females may have Turner's syndrome, a congenital disorder causing lymphedema of the feet, webbed neck, squarely shaped chest, cubitus valgus, and widely spaced nipples.
Diagnosis is suggested by clinical examination (including BP measurement in all 4 extremities), supported by chest x-ray and ECG, and established by 2-dimensional echocardiography with color flow and Doppler studies or with CT or MR angiography.
Chest x-ray shows coarctation as a “3” sign in the upper left mediastinal shadow. Heart size is normal unless HF supervenes. Dilated intercostal collateral arteries may erode the 3rd to 8th ribs, causing rib notching, but this is seldom seen before age 5 yr.
ECG usually shows left ventricular hypertrophy but may be normal. In neonates and small infants, ECG usually shows right ventricular hypertrophy rather than left ventricular hypertrophy.
Symptomatic neonates require cardiopulmonary stabilization with infusion of prostaglandin E1 (0.05 to 0.10 μg/kg/min—may titrate up to 0.4 μg/kg/min then back down to lowest effective dose) to reopen the constricted ductus arteriosus. Opening the ductus and its aortic ampulla provides some relief of the aortic obstruction and allows pulmonary artery blood to increase perfusion of the descending aorta through the ductus, improving systemic perfusion and reversing metabolic acidosis. IV cardioactive drugs (eg, milrinone, dopamine, dobutamine), diuretics, and O2 are used to treat HF.
In nonemergent situations, patients with hypertension may be treated with β-blockers; ACE inhibitors may adversely affect renal function. After repair of the coarctation, hypertension may persist or develop years after repair and can be treated with β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, or Ca channel blockers.
The preferred definitive treatment is controversial. Some centers prefer balloon angioplasty with or without stent placement, but most prefer surgical correction and reserve the balloon procedure for recoarctation after surgical correction or for primary treatment of discrete coarctation in older children or adolescents. Initial success rate after balloon angioplasty is 80 to 90%; subsequent catheterization can dilate the stent as children grow.
Surgical options include resection and end-to-end anastomosis, patch aortoplasty, and left subclavian flap aortoplasty. In severe coarctation manifesting early in life, the transverse aorta and isthmus are often hypoplastic, and this region of the aorta may need to be surgically enlarged. Choice of surgical technique depends on anatomy and center preference. Surgical mortality rate is < 5% for symptomatic infants and < 1% for older children. Residual coarctation is common (6 to 33%). Rarely, paraplegia results from cross-clamping of the aorta during surgery.
Endocarditis prophylaxis is not needed preoperatively and is required only for the first 6 mo after repair or if there is a residual defect adjacent to a surgical patch.
Last full review/revision March 2010 by Lee B. Beerman, MD
Content last modified February 2012