* This is the Professional Version. *
Suicidal Behavior in Children and Adolescents
(See also Suicidal Behavior.)
Suicidal behavior includes completed suicide, attempted suicide (with at least some intent to die), and suicide gestures; suicidal ideation is thoughts and plans about suicide. Psychiatric referral is usually required.
Youth suicide rates have declined in recent years after more than a decade of steady increase, only to have started climbing again. The exact reasons for these fluctuations are unclear. Many experts believe that the changing rates with which antidepressants are prescribed may be a factor (see Suicide risk and antidepressants). Some experts hypothesize that antidepressants have paradoxical effects, making children and adolescents more vocal about suicidal feelings but less likely to commit suicide. Nonetheless, although rare in prepubertal children, suicide is the 2nd or 3rd leading cause of death in 15- to 19-yr-olds and remains a considerable public health concern.
In children and adolescents, risk of suicidal behavior is influenced by the presence of other mental disorders and other disorders that affect the brain, family history, psychosocial factors, and environmental factors (see Table: Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior in Children and Adolescents).
Risk Factors for Suicidal Behavior in Children and Adolescents
Other contributing factors may include a lack of structure and boundaries, leading to an overwhelming feeling of lack of direction, and intense parental pressure to succeed accompanied by the feeling of falling short of expectations. A frequent motive for a suicide attempt is an effort to manipulate or punish others with the fantasy “You will be sorry after I am dead.”
Protective factors include
Every suicide attempt is a serious matter that requires thoughtful and appropriate intervention. Once the immediate threat to life is removed, a decision regarding the need for hospitalization must be made. The decision involves balancing the degree of risk with the family’s capacity to provide support. Hospitalization (even in an open medical or pediatric ward with special-duty nursing) is the surest form of short-term protection and is usually indicated if depression, psychosis, or both are suspected.
Lethality of suicidal intent can be assessed based on the following:
Degree of forethought evidenced (eg, by writing a suicide note)
Steps taken to prevent discovery
Method used (eg, firearms are more lethal than pills)
Degree of self-injury sustained
Circumstances or immediate precipitating factors surrounding the attempt
Mental state at the time of the episode (acute agitation is especially concerning)
Recent discharge from inpatient care
Recent discontinuation of psychoactive drugs
Drugs may be indicated for any underlying disorder (eg, depression, bipolar or conduct disorder, psychosis) but cannot prevent suicide. Antidepressant use may increase risk of suicide in some adolescents (see Suicide risk and antidepressants). Use of drugs should be carefully monitored, and only sublethal amounts should be supplied.
Psychiatric referral is usually needed to provide appropriate drug treatment and psychotherapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention and dialectical behavioral therapy may be preferred. Treatment is most successful if the primary care practitioner continues to be involved.
Rebuilding morale and restoring emotional equilibrium within the family are essential. A negative or unsupportive parental response is a serious concern and may suggest a need for a more intensive intervention such as out-of-home placement. A positive outcome is most likely if the family shows love and concern.
Suicidal incidents are often preceded by behavioral changes (eg, despondent mood, low self-esteem, sleep and appetite disturbances, inability to concentrate, truancy from school, somatic complaints, and suicidal preoccupation), which often bring the child or adolescent to the physician’s office. Statements such as “I wish I had never been born” or “I would like to go to sleep and never wake up” should be taken seriously as possible indications of suicidal intent. A suicidal threat or attempt represents an important communication about the intensity of experienced despair.
Early recognition of the risk factors mentioned above may help prevent a suicide attempt. In response to these early cues, to threatened or attempted suicide, or to severe risk-taking behavior, vigorous intervention is appropriate. Adolescents should be directly questioned about their unhappy or self-destructive feelings; such direct questioning may diminish suicide risk. A physician should not provide unfounded reassurance, which can undermine the physician’s credibility and further lower the adolescent’s self-esteem.
The effectiveness of suicide prevention programs is being evaluated. The most effective programs are those that strive to ensure that the child has a supportive nurturing environment, ready access to mental health services, and a social setting that is characterized by respect for individual, racial, and cultural differences. In the US, the Suicide Prevention Resource Center lists some of these programs, and the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (1-800-273-TALK) provides crisis intervention for people threatening suicidethe SPRC Suicide Prevention Resource Center lists some of the programs, and the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (1-800-273-TALK) provides crisis intervention for people threatening suicide.
Nonsuicidal self-injurious behaviors can include superficial scratching, cutting, or burning the skin (using cigarettes or curling irons), as well as stabbing, hitting, and repeated rubbing the skin with an eraser or salt.
In some communities, self-injurious behaviors suddenly sweep through a high school in fad-like fashion and then gradually diminish over time. Such behaviors are often associated with illicit substance abuse and suggest that an adolescent is in great distress.
In many adolescents, these behaviors do not indicate suicidality but instead are self-punishing actions that they may feel they deserve; these behaviors are used to gain the attention of parents and/or significant others, express anger, or identify with a peer group. However, these adolescents, especially those who have used multiple methods of self-harm, have an increased risk of suicide.
All self-injurious behaviors should be evaluated by a clinician experienced in working with troubled adolescents to assess whether suicidality is an issue and to identify the underlying distress leading to the self-injurious behaviors.
* This is the Professional Version. *