Most penile cancers are squamous cell carcinomas; they usually occur in elderly uncircumcised men, particularly those with poor local hygiene. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Treatment includes excision.
Human papillomavirus, particularly types 16 and 18, plays a role in etiology. Premalignant lesions include erythroplasia of Queyrat, Bowen's disease, and bowenoid papulosis. Erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowen's disease progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma in 5 to 10% of patients; bowenoid papulosis does not appear to do so. The 3 lesions have different clinical manifestations and biologic effects but are virtually the same histologically; they may be more appropriately called intraepithelial neoplasia or carcinoma in situ.
Symptoms and Signs
Most squamous cell carcinomas originate on the glans, in the coronal sulcus, or under the foreskin. They usually begin as a small erythematous lesion and may be confined to the skin for a long time. These carcinomas may be fungating and exophytic or ulcerative and infiltrative. The latter type metastasizes more commonly, usually to the superficial and deep inguinofemoral and pelvic nodes. Metastases to distant sites (eg, lungs, liver, bone, brain) are rare until late in the disease.
Most patients present with a sore that has not healed, subtle induration of the skin, or sometimes a pus-filled or warty growth. The sore may be shallow or deep with rolled edges. Many patients do not notice the cancer or do not report it promptly. Pain is uncommon.
If cancer is suspected, biopsy is required; if possible, tissue under the lesion should be sampled. CT or MRI helps in staging localized cancer, checking for invasion of the corpora, and evaluating lymph nodes. The standard TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) staging system is used (see Table 1: Genitourinary Cancer: Genitourinary Cancer Staging ).
Untreated penile cancer progresses, typically causing death within 2 yr. Treated early, penile cancer can usually be cured.
Circumcision or laser ablation may be effective for small, superficial lesions. Partial penectomy is appropriate if the tumor can be completely excised with adequate margins, leaving a penile stump that permits urination and sexual function. Total penectomy is required for large infiltrative lesions. If tumors are high-grade or invade the corpora cavernosa, bilateral ilioinguinal lymphadenectomy is required. The role of radiation therapy has not been established. For advanced, invasive cancer, palliation may include surgery and radiation therapy, but cure is unlikely. Chemotherapy for advanced cancer has had limited success.
Last full review/revision December 2007 by David A. Swanson, MD