Gynecologic cancers often involve the uterus, ovaries, cervix, vulva, vagina, fallopian tubes, or, usually secondarily, the peritoneum. The most common gynecologic cancer in the US is endometrial cancer, followed by ovarian cancer. Cervical cancer is not very common in developed countries because Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening is widely available and effective. Gestational trophoblastic disease is a gynecologic tumor that may behave aggressively whether malignant or not.
Many gynecologic cancers manifest as pelvic masses (for diagnostic approach to pelvic masses, see Symptoms of Gynecologic Disorders: Evaluation).
Last full review/revision November 2008 by David M. Gershenson, MD; Pedro T. Ramirez, MD