Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD)
Histrionic personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking. Diagnosis is by clinical criteria. Treatment is with psychodynamic psychotherapy.
(See also Overview of Personality Disorders.)
Patients with histrionic personality disorder use their physical appearance, acting in inappropriately seductive or provocative ways, to gain the attention of others. They lack a sense of self-direction and are highly suggestible, often acting submissively to retain the attention of others.
About 1.5 to 3% of the general population are estimated to have histrionic personality disorder; it is more common among women than among men.
Comorbidities are common, particularly other personality disorders (antisocial, borderline, narcissistic), suggesting that these disorders share a biologic vulnerability or casting doubt on whether histrionic personality disorder is a separate disorder. Some patients also have somatic symptom disorder, which may be the reason they present for evaluation. Major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and conversion disorder may also coexist.
Patients with histrionic personality disorder continually demand to be the center of attention and often become depressed when they are not. They are often lively, dramatic, enthusiastic, and flirtatious and sometimes charm new acquaintances.
These patients often dress and act in inappropriately seductive and provocative ways, not just with potential romantic interests, but in many contexts (eg, work, school). They want to impress others with their appearance and so are often preoccupied with how they look.
Expression of emotion may be shallow (turned off and on too quickly) and exaggerated. They speak dramatically, expressing strong opinions, but with few facts or details to support their opinions.
Patients with histrionic personality disorder are easily influenced by others and by current trends. They tend to be too trusting, especially of authority figures who, they think, may be able to solve all their problems. They often think relationships are closer than they are. They crave novelty and tend to bore easily. Thus, they may change jobs and friends frequently. Delayed gratification is very frustrating to them, so their actions are often motivated by obtaining immediate satisfaction.
Achieving emotional or sexual intimacy may be difficult. Patients may, often without being aware of it, play a role (eg, victim). They may try to control their partner using seductiveness or emotional manipulations while becoming very dependent on the partner.
For a diagnosis of histrionic personality disorder, patients must have a persistent pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking, as shown by ≥ 5 of the following:
Discomfort when they are not the center of attention
Interaction with others that is inappropriately sexually seductive or provocative
Rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions
Consistent use of physical appearance to call attention to themselves
Speech that is extremely impressionistic and vague
Self-dramatization, theatricality, and extravagant expression of emotion
Suggestibility (easily influenced by others or situations)
Interpretation of relationships as more intimate than they are
Also, symptoms must have begun by early adulthood.
Histrionic personality disorders can be distinguished from other personality disorders based on characteristic features:
Narcissistic: Patients with narcissistic personality disorder also seek attention, but they, unlike those with histrionic personality disorder, want to feel admired or elevated by it; patients with histrionic personality disorder are not so picky about the kind of attention they get and do not mind being thought cute or silly.
Borderline: Patients with borderline personality disorder consider themselves bad and experience emotions intensely and deeply; those with histrionic personality disorder do not see themselves as bad, even though their dependence on the reaction of others may be stem from poor self-esteem.
Dependent: Patients with dependent personality disorder, like those with histrionic personality disorder, try to be near others but are more anxious, inhibited, and submissive (because they are worried about rejection); patients with histrionic personality disorder are less inhibited and more flamboyant.
General treatment of histrionic personality disorder is the same as that for all personality disorders.
Little is known about the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy and drug therapy for histrionic personality disorder.
Psychodynamic psychotherapy, which focuses on underlying conflicts, may be tried. The therapist may start by encouraging patients to substitute speech for behavior, and thus, patients can understand themselves and communicate with others in a less dramatic way. Then, the therapist can help patients realize how their histrionic behaviors are a maladaptive way to attract the attention of others and to manage their self-esteem.