Mediastinoscopy is introduction of an endoscope into the mediastinum. Mediastinotomy is surgical opening of the mediastinum. The two are complementary. Mediastinotomy gives direct access to aortopulmonary window lymph nodes, which are inaccessible by mediastinoscopy. Both procedures are done to evaluate or excise mediastinal lymphadenopathy or masses and to stage cancers (eg, lung cancer, esophageal cancer), although PET scanning is decreasing the need for these procedures for cancer staging.
Contraindications include the following:
Mediastinoscopy and mediastinotomy are done by surgeons in an operating room using general anesthesia. For mediastinoscopy, the soft tissue of the neck is bluntly dissected down to the trachea and distally to the carina through an incision in the suprasternal notch. A mediastinoscope is inserted into the space allowing access to the paratracheal, tracheobronchial, azygous, and subcarinal nodes and to the superior posterior mediastinum. Anterior mediastinotomy (the Chamberlain procedure) is surgical entry to the mediastinum through an incision in the parasternal 2nd left intercostal space, allowing access to anterior mediastinal and aortopulmonary window lymph nodes, common sites of metastases for left upper lobe lung cancers.
Complications occur in < 1% of patients and include bleeding, infection, vocal cord paralysis due to recurrent laryngeal nerve damage, chylothorax from duct injury, and pneumothorax.
Last full review/revision June 2009 by Noah Lechtzin, MD, MHS
Content last modified February 2012