Hyalohyphomycosis is infection caused by nonpigmented fungi (other than the genera Aspergillus or Penicillium or the class Zygomycetes) that in tissue form hyphal elements with hyaline or clear walls. Examples of genera causing hyalohyphomycosis in humans and other animals include Acremonium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Paecilomyces, Pseudallescheria, and Scedosporium. Hyalohyphomycosis occurs much less frequently than phaeohyphomycosis.
Lesions range from local cutaneous, subcutaneous, corneal, or nasal mucosal disease to disseminated disease involving the lungs and multiple other organ systems.
The several causative fungi cannot be identified by their histologic features in tissues; culture isolation and/or PCR are required.
Surgical removal with or without topical antifungal therapy is the treatment of choice for local disease. Disseminated disease typically carries a grave prognosis. Treatment with newer azole antifungals and/or amphotericin B lipid complex may be attempted.
Last full review/revision March 2012 by Joseph Taboada, DVM, DACVIM