Also see Fungal Infections.
Microsporum spp and Trichophyton spp rarely infect primates. Topical treatment of ringworm with undecylenic acid ointment or 1% tolnaftate cream, bid for 2–3 wk, or administration of griseofulvin at 25 mg/kg, PO or ketoconazole 5–10 mg/kg, PO, for 3–4 wk, is recommended. Candida spp are common saprophytes of the skin, GI tract, and reproductive tract; they act as facultative pathogens in debilitated primates. Ulcers or white, raised plaques may be seen on the tongue or mouth; the fungus may also attack fingernails. Oral lesions must be differentiated from those of trauma, monkeypox, or herpesvirus infections. A topical cream containing nystatin is effective in superficial infections. Oral nystatin (200,000 U, qid, continued for 48 hr after clinical recovery) is effective for candidiasis of the GI tract. Dermatophilus congolensis infection has been reported in owl monkeys. Papillomatous lesions are seen on the face and extremities. The infection is transmissible to humans. Aspergillosis may occur in various primate species, and the organism usually is a facultative pathogen in immunocompromised hosts. In endemic regions of the western and southwestern USA, Coccidioides immitis has been associated with fungal pneumonia and disseminated mycosis (“valley fever”) in monkeys and apes following exposure to airborne spores of this soil fungus.
Last full review/revision July 2011 by Nicholas W. Lerche, DVM, MPVM