Also see Ratites.
Ratites are flightless birds and do not require the high-energy diets of flighted birds. Ostriches, rheas, and emus consume low-quality roughage in nature, which is fermented in their intestinal tract. The nutritional requirements of juveniles are much higher in protein and calcium than those of adults. Breeders have even higher calcium requirements (see Nutrition: Exotic and Zoo Animals: Selected Nutritional Requirements for Ratite Production a).
Ratite production for meat and leather has necessitated the development of diets to maximize growth and minimize cost. Bringing an animal to market in minimal time is financially advantageous, but excessively rapid growth can lead to angular deformities of the legs.
Cassowaries are rainforest ratites and are primarily frugivorous. They are not raised commercially, and their nutritional requirements are not documented. Adult birds often consume 3–5 kg of food per day. Diets fed in zoos include fruits and vegetables such as bananas, apples, tomatoes, papaya, watermelon, grapes, mangoes, plums, nectarines, cherries, kiwi fruit, figs, sweet potatoes, and carrots. These are commonly supplemented with animal protein (eg, day-old chicks, mice, dry dog food).
Last full review/revision July 2011 by Joeke Nijboer, PhD; Teresa L. Lightfoot, DVM, DABVP (Avian)