Salmonella infections are categorized as nonmotile serotypes (S pullorum, S gallinarum) and the many motile paratyphoid Salmonella. As a result of the institution of a testing and control program in the USA through the USDA-administered National Poultry Improvement Plan, the incidence of S pullorum and S gallinarum has decreased dramatically. Historically, S arizonae was placed in its own category, but it is now included with the paratyphoid Salmonella. In addition to the above nonmotile salmonellae, Salmonella paratyphoid infections in poultry are relatively common and have public health significance because of contaminated poultry product consumption.
S pullorum and S gallinarum are highly host-adapted to chickens and turkeys. There are ~2,400 nonhost-adapted species (paratyphoid) that may be transmitted to almost all animals (Also see Salmonellosis: Overview of Salmonellosis).
Last full review/revision March 2012 by Sherrill Davison, VMD, MS, MBA, DACPV