Symptoms include burning or tingling pain that occurs when people walk or wear certain shoes.
The diagnosis is based on an examination of the foot and nerve conduction studies.
Corticosteroid injections, orthoses, and sometimes surgery are needed to relieve the pain.
(See also Overview of Foot Problems Overview of Foot and Ankle Problems Some foot problems start in the foot itself, for example, resulting from a foot injury. Problems can occur in any bone, joint, muscle, tendon, or ligament of the foot. Foot and ankle fractures... read more .)
The posterior tibial nerve runs down the back of the calf, through a fibrous canal (tarsal tunnel) near the heel, and into the sole of the foot. When tissues around the tarsal tunnel become inflamed, they can swell and press on the nerve (nerve compression), causing pain.
Disorders that can cause or contribute to tarsal tunnel syndrome include fracture, ankle swelling caused by heart failure Heart Failure (HF) Heart failure is a disorder in which the heart is unable to keep up with the demands of the body, leading to reduced blood flow, back-up (congestion) of blood in the veins and lungs, and/or... read more or kidney failure Overview of Kidney Failure Kidney failure is the inability of the kidneys to adequately filter metabolic waste products from the blood. Kidney failure has many possible causes. Some lead to a rapid decline in kidney function... read more , and an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is underactivity of the thyroid gland that leads to inadequate production of thyroid hormones and a slowing of vital body functions. Facial expressions become dull, the voice... read more ). Also, disorders such as gout Gout Gout is a disorder in which deposits of uric acid crystals accumulate in the joints because of high blood levels of uric acid (hyperuricemia). The accumulations of crystals cause flares (attacks)... read more or rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis in which joints, usually including those of the hands and feet, are inflamed, resulting in swelling, pain, and often destruction of joints.... read more cause inflammation in the joints. Poor foot posture may also contribute if the ankle rolls too far inward and stresses the nerve within the tarsal tunnel.
Symptoms of Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
Pain, the most common symptom of tarsal tunnel syndrome, usually has a burning or tingling quality that may occur when a person stands, walks, or wears a particular type of shoe. Pain located around the ankle (usually on the inner side) and extending to the toes usually worsens during walking and is relieved by rest. As the disorder progresses, pain also may occur during rest.
Diagnosis of Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
A doctor's examination of the foot
Sometimes nerve conduction studies
Sometimes MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
To diagnose tarsal tunnel syndrome, a doctor manipulates the affected foot during a physical examination. For example, tapping the injured or compressed area just below the ankle bone often causes tingling (referred to as the Tinel sign), which may extend to the heel, arch, or toes.
Nerve conduction studies Nerve conduction studies Diagnostic procedures may be needed to confirm a diagnosis suggested by the medical history and neurologic examination. Imaging tests commonly used to diagnose nervous system (neurologic) disorders... read more may be useful to determine the cause or extent of the injury, especially if foot surgery is being considered. Sometimes an MRI is helpful to evaluate the surrounding structures that might be contributing to nerve compression.
Treatment of Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
Injections of a corticosteroid/anesthetic mixture into the area may relieve pain from tarsal tunnel syndrome. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Pain relievers (analgesics) are the main drugs used to treat pain. Doctors choose a pain reliever based on the type and duration of pain and on the drug's likely benefits and risks. Most pain... read more (NSAIDs) may be used at first and may relieve some symptoms.
Other treatments include wrapping the foot and placing specially constructed devices in the shoe (orthoses).
When other treatments do not relieve the pain, surgery to relieve pressure on the nerve may be necessary.