This disorder occurs when hairs near the buttocks grow into the skin.
If an infection develops, symptoms include pain, redness, and swelling and sometimes pus.
The diagnosis is based on an examination.
Treatment includes measures to remove abscesses and sinuses and repair cysts.
(See also Overview of the Anus and Rectum Overview of the Anus and Rectum The anus is the opening at the end of the digestive tract where stool leaves the body. The rectum is the section of the digestive tract above the anus where stool is held before it passes out... read more .)
Pilonidal disease usually occurs in young, hairy, White men but can also occur in women.
For unknown reasons, sometimes a hair irritates and grows into the skin, forming a cavity that may contain hair. Such a cavity is called a pilonidal cyst and typically forms at the top of the cleft between the buttocks. A pilonidal cyst may cause no symptoms, or it may become infected and cause pain.
If an infection causes a collection of pus to form, it is called a pilonidal abscess. A pilonidal abscess causes pain, redness, and swelling. Sometimes pus drains spontaneously from the abscess.
A pilonidal sinus is a chronic draining wound at the site.
Diagnosis of Pilonidal Disease
A doctor's examination
To distinguish pilonidal disease from other infections, a doctor looks for tiny holes in or next to the infected area (pits).
Treatment of Pilonidal Disease
For pilonidal abscesses, cutting and draining
For pilonidal sinuses, surgical removal
For larger cysts, flap procedure
Generally, a pilonidal abscess must be cut and drained by a doctor. Antibiotics are typically not needed.
Usually, a pilonidal sinus must be removed surgically.
Larger cysts may need to be closed with a flap procedure. In a flap procedure, skin and sometimes muscle are moved from a nearby area to cover the area that the cyst was removed from.