Merck Manual

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Staging Cancers of the Female Reproductive System*

Staging Cancers of the Female Reproductive System*

Type

Stage I

Stage II

Stage III

Stage IV†

Only in the cervix

Spread outside the uterus (including the upper two thirds of the vagina and/or tissues outside the uterus) but still within the pelvis‡

Spread throughout the pelvis and/or to the lower third of the vagina and/or blocks the ureters and/or causes a kidney to malfunction and/or spreads to the lymph nodes near the aorta (the largest artery in the body)

Spread outside the pelvis and/or to the bladder or rectum (A) or distant organs (B)

Only in the upper part of the uterus (not in the cervix)

Spread to the cervix but is still within the uterus

Spread to nearby tissues, the vagina, or lymph nodes

Spread to the bladder and/or intestine (A) and/or distant organs (B)

Only in one or both fallopian tubes

Spread to nearby tissues but still within the pelvis‡

Spread outside the pelvis to lymph nodes and/or to abdominal organs (such as the surface of the liver)

Spread to distant organs

Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (the form of gestational trophoblastic disease that is usually cancerous)

Only in the uterus

Spread outside the uterus to the ovary, fallopian tube, vagina, and/or ligaments that support the uterus

Spread to the lungs

Spread to more distant sites, such as the brain, liver, kidneys, and/or digestive tract

Only in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes

Spread to the uterus or nearby tissues within the pelvis‡

Spread outside the pelvis to lymph nodes and/or to other parts of the abdomen (such as the surface of the liver or spleen)

Spread outside the abdomen (for example, to the lungs)

Only in the wall of the vagina

Spread through the wall of the vagina to nearby tissues but still within the pelvis‡

Spread throughout the pelvis (but not the bladder or rectum)

Spread to the bladder or rectum or outside of the pelvis

Only in the vulva or the area between the opening of the rectum and vagina (perineum)

Spread to nearby tissues (the lower part of the urethra or vagina or to the anus) but not to nearby lymph nodes

Spread to nearby lymph nodes, with or without spread to nearby tissues

Spread beyond nearby tissues to the bladder, the upper part of the vagina or urethra, the rectum, pelvic bone, more distant lymph nodes, or outside the pelvis

* Simplified from the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Staging System.

† Stage IV is sometimes further classified as A or B depending on where the cancer has spread.

‡ The pelvis refers to the lowest part of the torso, the area below the abdomen and between the hip bones. It contains the internal reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum.