What is a cataract?
A cataract is when the lens of your eye slowly gets cloudy. This does not hurt, but it causes your vision to get worse over time.
Among other symptoms, your vision may not be as sharp
An eye doctor can diagnose a cataract by examining your eyes
When you can no longer see well enough, the cataract can be removed
What causes a cataract?
The cause of cataracts is not always known. Often cataracts develop as you get older. However, other causes include:
An eye injury
Certain eye diseases
Using certain medicines (such as corticosteroids) for a long time
Not protecting your eyes from the sun
Drinking too much alcohol
What are the symptoms of a cataract?
Symptoms may vary from person to person but can include:
Seeing halos and glare around lights
Less often, double vision
Colors seeming more yellow and less bright than normal
How can doctors tell if I have a cataract?
Doctors do a full eye exam to see if you have a cataract, where the cataract is, and how much light it’s blocking.
How do doctors treat a cataract?
At first, you might use eyeglasses or contact lenses to help you see better. There are no eye drops or medicines that will make cataracts go away.
At some point, your vision may get bad enough that you feel unsafe or unable to do your daily tasks. Then doctors will do surgery to remove your cataract. During surgery, doctors replace your eye's natural lens with an artificial (man-made) one. Surgery takes about 30 minutes. You can go home the same day. Cataract surgery can be done on a person of any age and is generally safe even for people with illnesses such as heart disease and diabetes.
You’ll use eye drops to prevent infection and help your eye heal
You'll have some follow-up visits with your doctor
Your vision will improve within a few weeks after surgery, but you may still need glasses for reading or driving at night
Rarely you might have an infection, bleeding, high pressure, or swelling in your eye
Doctors will treat any problem that may develop
How can I prevent a cataract?
To help prevent cataracts:
Protect your eyes from the sun by wearing glasses or sunglasses with a UV (ultraviolet) coating
If you take corticosteroids, ask your doctor about switching to a different medicine
Eat foods with vitamins C and A and with nutrients called carotenoids (found in carrots, sweet potatoes, and dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach and kale)
Don't smoke or drink too much alcohol