Merck Manual

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Quick Facts



The Manual's Editorial Staff

Last full review/revision Dec 2019| Content last modified Dec 2019
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What are sepsis and septic shock?

Sepsis is when germs (bacteria) get into your bloodstream and trigger a serious body-wide reaction. When sepsis is severe, one or more of your organs may shut down. For example, your kidneys may stop making urine or your lungs may stop bringing in oxygen.

Septic shock is the most dangerous kind of sepsis. You have very low blood pressure (shock Shock Shock is a medical emergency caused by your organs not getting enough blood and oxygen. It has nothing to do with the "shock" we feel when something scares or upsets us. When your body can't... read more ), and many of your organs shut down. Septic shock can be fatal.

What causes sepsis?

Sepsis is usually caused by a bacterial infection. The infection can start in any part of your body, including your:

  • Lungs

  • Bladder or kidneys

  • Belly

  • Skin

Sometimes, the bacteria get in through an IV catheter used to give fluids and medicine.

If the infection spreads to your bloodstream and causes your body to react, you have sepsis.

The most dangerous kinds of bacteria that cause sepsis are usually found in hospitals.

What are the symptoms of sepsis and septic shock?


Usually sepsis causes a high fever. You may also have:

  • Shaking, chills, and weakness

  • Fast heart rate

  • Fast breathing

You may also have symptoms of the infection that caused your sepsis. For example, if you have a lung infection, you may have a cough and trouble breathing.

Septic shock

If you have septic shock, you have low blood pressure that doesn’t get better with treatment. You may also have:

  • Confusion and weakness

  • Skin that's hot to the touch

  • A fast, pounding pulse

  • Fast breathing or trouble breathing

  • Less urine

Some people with septic shock will die from it.

How can doctors tell if I have sepsis?

How do doctors treat sepsis?

Doctors treat sepsis in the hospital right away with antibiotics and fluids given through a vein (IV) . If you have septic shock, doctors may also:

  • Give you drugs to keep your blood pressure up

  • Give you oxygen to help you breathe or even put you on a breathing machine

  • Put you on a kidney dialysis machine

  • Take out whatever is causing the infection—such as an infected IV line

  • Do surgery to drain pus or take out infected tissue

If you have sepsis, the chances of getting better and avoiding severe sepsis and septic shock are higher the earlier you get treatment. Doctors follow detailed routines to give the right treatment as fast as possible.

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Preventive Health Care Visits in Infants
Frequent doctor visits are recommended for all infants younger than 1 year of age. These visits, also called well-child visits, make it possible to check development, look for health problems, provide age-appropriate vaccinations, and educate parents. Which of the following is a condition that might affect some infants born very prematurely, with less than 32 weeks of development in the uterus?
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