What is a mass casualty weapon?
A casualty is a person hurt or killed by a dangerous event. Mass casualties are when many people are hurt all at once. Mass casualties can come from big accidents, such as a bad train crash, collapsed building, or chemical spill. Mass casualties also can come from intentional events, such as wars or terrorist attacks. Intentional attacks use mass casualty weapons, such as explosives, chemicals, and germs.
Mass casualty weapons are sometimes called weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
A mass casualty event is when more people are injured than nearby rescue squads, doctors, and hospitals are normally able to care for at one time
Hospitals and communities plan ahead for possible disasters so they'll have enough staff, supplies, and equipment on hand and know how to respond
What are types of mass casualty weapons?
Types of mass casualty weapons include:
Contamination is a problem with many types of mass casualty weapons.
Contamination is when people or the area they're in are covered with a dangerous substance, such as a chemical or radioactive material
The dangerous substance might keep affecting the person until it is removed (a process called decontamination). Also, the dangerous substance can spread to rescuers and, depending on what it is, to nearby areas in the community.
How do doctors know an event involving mass casualty weapons has taken place?
Sometimes the event is obvious, such as an explosion or chemical spill. Other times doctors don't realize mass casualty weapons have been used until many people get sick at the same time in the same place. Doctors come to realize mass casualty weapons were used because:
Many different people all have the same unusual symptoms
The people who created the attack announce it
Environmental changes (such as unusual smells or dying animals) offer clues and raise suspicions
How do doctors and first responders deal with mass casualty weapon attacks?
Preparation is critical. Before any event, communities and hospitals:
Create a written disaster plan so everyone knows what to do
Make sure there are ways to quickly bring in extra personnel, including police, paramedics, and doctors
Make sure there are plenty of medical supplies and protective equipment stored away, ready to be brought out
Make arrangements with nearby hospitals and communities to provide help if needed
Do practice drills on how to respond to a mass casualty event
State and federal governments also have plans for helping communities respond to a mass casualty weapon attack.
Right after an attack, emergency responders first check to see if the scene is still dangerous, such as with:
Attackers on the scene
Dangerous chemicals or radioactive materials on the ground or in the air
Checking for continued threats lets responders know what protective gear or personnel are required to make it safe to look for and treat casualties.
If contaminating substances were involved, first responders:
Estimate how big the danger zone is
Protect themselves from injury by staying out of contaminated areas unless they are wearing protective gear
Establish an area outside the danger zone for decontaminating people and another area for treating them
When it is safe to go to the injured people, first responders:
Do triage, which is quickly checking each casualty to decide how soon they need medical care
Begin removing people who need immediate medical care
Tell injured people who can walk to go to the treatment area on their own
It's important for first responders doing triage to check everyone first and not just start treating the first casualty they see. Checking everyone makes sure that they find all the people with reversible life-threatening injuries who might be saved with immediate treatment.
When many people are seriously injured and near death, some who might be saved if they were the only injured person may have to be left until there's time to treat them. That's so that doctors can work on people who are more likely to live.