(See also Overview of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Overview of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), also termed sexually transmitted infections (STIs), can be caused by a number of microorganisms that vary widely in size, life cycle, the diseases and symptoms... read more .)
Infections with K. granulomatis are extremely rare but have been previously reported in areas such as Papua New Guinea, Australia, southern Africa, the Caribbean, and parts of Brazil and India.
Sites of infection are
After an incubation period of about 1 to 12 weeks, a painless, red skin nodule slowly enlarges, becoming a raised, beefy red, moist, smooth, foul-smelling lesion. The lesion slowly enlarges, often ulcerates, and may spread to other skin areas. Lesions heal slowly, with scarring. Secondary infections with other bacteria are common and can cause extensive tissue destruction. Lymphadenopathy is uncommon.
Occasionally, granuloma inguinale spreads through the bloodstream to the bones, joints, or liver; without treatment, anemia, wasting, and, uncommonly, death may occur.
Granuloma inguinale is suspected in patients from endemic areas with characteristic lesions.
Diagnosis of granuloma inguinale is confirmed microscopically by the presence of Donovan bodies (numerous bacilli in the cytoplasm of macrophages shown by Giemsa or Wright stain) in smears of fluid from scrapings from the edge of lesions. These smears contain many plasma cells.
Biopsy specimens are taken if the diagnosis is unclear or if adequate tissue fluid cannot be obtained because lesions are dry, sclerotic, or necrotic. The bacteria do not grow on ordinary culture media.
Many oral antibiotics kill the bacteria, but tetracyclines, macrolides, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) are most effective, followed by ceftriaxone, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and chloramphenicol.
Recommended oral regimens include
IV or IM antibiotics (eg, ceftriaxone) are an alternative.
Response to treatment should begin within 7 days, but healing of extensive disease may be slow and lesions may recur, requiring longer treatment. HIV-infected patients may also require prolonged or intensive treatment. After apparently successful treatment, follow-up should continue for 6 months.
Current sex partners should be examined and, if infected, treated.
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