Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is dietary vitamin K. Sources include green leafy vegetables (especially collards, spinach, and salad greens), soy beans, and vegetable oils. Dietary fat enhances its absorption. Infant formulas contain supplemental vitamin K. After the neonatal period, bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract synthesize vitamin K, which is absorbed and used by the body.
Vitamin K2 refers to a group of compounds (menaquinones) synthesized by bacteria in the intestinal tract; the amount synthesized does not satisfy the vitamin K requirement.
Vitamin K controls the formation of coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X in the liver (see table ). Other coagulation factors dependent on vitamin K are protein C, protein S, and protein Z; proteins C and S are anticoagulants. Metabolic pathways conserve vitamin K. Once vitamin K has participated in formation of coagulation factors, the reaction product, vitamin K epoxide, is enzymatically converted to the active form, vitamin K hydroquinone.
The actions of vitamin K–dependent proteins require calcium. The vitamin K–dependent proteins, osteocalcin and matrix gamma-carboxy-glutamyl (Gla) protein, may have important roles in bone and other tissues. Forms of vitamin K are common therapy for osteoporosis in Japan and other countries.
Vitamin K toxicity is rare but is most common in formula-fed infants. The effects of vitamin K toxicity can include hemolytic anemia Overview of Hemolytic Anemia At the end of their normal life span (about 120 days), red blood cells (RBCs) are removed from the circulation. Hemolysis is defined as premature destruction and hence a shortened RBC life span... read more and jaundice Jaundice Jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia. Jaundice becomes visible when the bilirubin level is about 2 to 3 mg/dL (34 to 51 micromol/L)... read more . Jaundice in newborns can cause kernicterus Kernicterus Kernicterus is brain damage caused by unconjugated bilirubin deposition in basal ganglia and brain stem nuclei. Normally, bilirubin bound to serum albumin stays in the intravascular space. However... read more .
(See also Overview of Vitamins Overview of Vitamins Vitamins may be Fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E, and K) Water soluble (B vitamins and vitamin C) The B vitamins include biotin, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin (B2), thiamin (B1)... read more .)