Biotin acts as a coenzyme for carboxylation reactions essential to fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Adequate intake for adults is 30 mcg/day.
Pantothenic acid is widely distributed in foods; it is an essential component of coenzyme A. Adults probably require about 5 mg/day. A beneficial role for pantothenic acid supplementation in lipid metabolism, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or athletic performance remains unproved.
Isolated deficiency of biotin or pantothenic acid virtually never occurs.
(See also Overview of Vitamins.)