Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

honeypot link

Antibiotics in Neonates

By

Brenda L. Tesini

, MD, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

Last full review/revision Jul 2020| Content last modified Jul 2020
Click here for Patient Education
Topic Resources

In neonates, the extracellular fluid (ECF) constitutes up to 45% of total body weight, requiring relatively larger doses of certain antibiotics (eg, aminoglycosides) compared with adults. Lower serum albumin concentrations in premature infants Premature Infants An infant born before 37 weeks gestation is considered premature. Prematurity is defined by the gestational age at which infants are born. Previously, any infant weighing read more may reduce antibiotic protein binding. Drugs that displace bilirubin from albumin (eg, sulfonamides, ceftriaxone) increase the risk of kernicterus Kernicterus Kernicterus is brain damage caused by unconjugated bilirubin deposition in basal ganglia and brain stem nuclei. Normally, bilirubin bound to serum albumin stays in the intravascular space. However... read more .

Absence or deficiency of certain enzymes in neonates may prolong the half-life of certain antibiotics (eg, chloramphenicol) and increase the risk of toxicity. Changes in glomerular filtration rate and renal tubular secretion during the first month of life necessitate dosing changes for renally excreted drugs (eg, penicillins, aminoglycosides, vancomycin).

Table
icon
Table
icon
Table
icon
Table
icon
Click here for Patient Education
NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Click here for the Consumer Version
Professionals also read
Test your knowledge
Mumps
Mumps is an acute, contagious, systemic viral disease caused by a paramyxovirus. It is spread by droplets or saliva and probably enters through the nose and mouth. After a 12- to 24-day incubation period, headache, anorexia, malaise, and low-grade fever usually develop. Then several other symptoms develop over the next few days. Of these symptoms, edema of which of the following structures is most likely to peak on the 2nd day and typically last 5 to 7 days? 
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID

Also of Interest

Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
TOP