Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis most often occurs in the larynx as laryngeal papillomas. Laryngeal papillomas can occur at any age but are most common at ages 1 to 4 years. They may reappear after treatment, undergo malignant transformation, and/or occasionally spread to the trachea or lungs.
Treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is by excision. Because tumors may recur in weeks or months, multiple procedures may be required and surveillance by laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy is necessary. Surgery may involve pulsed-dye laser therapy or photodynamic therapy.
Antiviral (eg, cidofovir) or anticancer (eg, bevacizumab) drugs have been tried in severe cases (1). Lesions may regress at puberty in some patients. The quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine offers hope of prevention, but efficacy has not yet been proved.
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