Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

honeypot link

Traditional Chinese Medicine

By

Denise Millstine

, MD, Mayo Clinic

Last full review/revision Oct 2021
Click here for Patient Education

Originating > 2000 years ago, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a medical system based on the philosophy that illness results from improper flow of the life force (qi). The movement of qi is restored by balancing the opposing forces of yin and yang, which manifest in the body as cold and heat, internal and external, and deficiency and excess.

Various practices are used to preserve and restore qi and thus health. Most commonly used are

Other practices include diet, massage, and meditative exercise called qi gong.

TCM often uses diagnostic categories that do not correspond to current scientific understanding of biology and illness (eg, general deficiency, excess of yin or yang).

Evidence for Traditional Chinese Medicine

Obtaining high-quality evidence is difficult, mainly because the active ingredients in TCM herbs are not purified, are often unidentified, and may be numerous. Thus, determining the dose is difficult or impossible, and the dose may vary from one source of herbs to another. Information about bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics is usually unavailable. Also, active ingredients may interact with each other in complex and variable ways.

Chinese herbal medicine traditionally uses formulas containing mixtures of herbs to treat various disorders. Traditional formulas can be studied as a whole, or each herb in the formula can be studied separately. One herb, used by itself, may not be as effective and may have adverse effects. Nevertheless, current conventional research favors study of single herbs to better control for variables. Another problem is the large number of herbal mixtures that could be studied.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies (most done in China) have shown evidence for efficacy of TCM for the following:

Many of these reviews had significant limitations, suggesting the need for confirmation with further prospective studies.

Studies of TCM herbs and herbal mixtures for irritable bowel syndrome have had mixed results, and reviews of these studies conclude that more rigorous studies are required.

Possible Adverse Effects

One problem with TCM is the standardization and quality control of Chinese herbs. Many are unregulated in Asia; they may be contaminated with heavy metals from polluted ground water or may be adulterated with drugs such as antibiotics or corticosteroids. Ingredients are often substituted, partly because the names of the herbs are translated incorrectly.

In herbal mixtures, adverse effects may also result from interactions between active ingredients. Interactions can also occur between TCM herbs and medications.

References

  • 1. Wang N, Qin DD, Xie YH, et al: Traditional Chinese Medicine strategy for patients with Tourette syndrome based on clinical efficacy and safety: A meta-analysis of 47 randomized controlled trials. Biomed Res Int 6630598, 2021. doi: 10.1155/2021/6630598

  • 2. Wang YT, Zhang RQ, Wang SF, et al: A systematic review and meta-analysis of integrated traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in treating glomerulosclerosis. Medicine (Baltimore) 100(7):e24799, 2021. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000024799

  • 3. Zhang H, Li M, Xu T: Therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines for post-stroke depression: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine (Baltimore) 100(1):e24173, 2021. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000024173

  • 4. Di YM, Yang L, Shergis JL, et al: Clinical evidence of Chinese medicine therapies for depression in women during perimenopause and menopause. Complement Ther Med 47:102071, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2019.03.019

  • 5. Zhou LP, Wang J, Xie RH, et al: The effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine as an auxiliary treatment for COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Altern Complement Med 27(3):225-237, 2021. doi: 10.1089/acm.2020.0310

  • 6. Huang X, Zhu Z, Wu G, et al: Efficacy and safety of external application of Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of acute gouty arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Tradit Chin Med 39(3):297-306, 2019. PMID: 32186001.

  • 7. Chen S, Bao Y, Xu J, et al: Efficacy and safety of TCM combined with chemotherapy for SCLC: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 146(11):2913-2935, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s00432-020-03353-0

Click here for Patient Education
NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Click here for the Consumer Version
Professionals also read
Test your knowledge
Options for Limb Prostheses
A patient with recent upper extremity amputation just below the elbow comes to the office for consultation regarding choices for a prosthesis. During the interview, the patient says that she would like to continue to work in construction and would most likely need a prosthesis that is inexpensive, durable, and requires little maintenance. Which of the following is the most appropriate prosthesis to recommend to this patient?
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
 

Also of Interest

 
TOP