(See also Overview of Foot Problems Overview of Foot Problems Some foot problems start in the foot itself, for example, resulting from a foot injury. Problems can occur in any bone, joint, muscle, tendon, or ligament of the foot. Foot and ankle fractures... read more .)
The posterior tibial nerve runs down the back of the calf, through a fibrous canal (tarsal tunnel) near the heel, and into the sole of the foot. When tissues around the tarsal tunnel become inflamed, they can swell and press on the nerve (nerve compression), causing pain.
Disorders that can cause or contribute to tarsal tunnel syndrome include fracture, ankle swelling caused by heart failure Heart Failure (HF) Heart failure is a disorder in which the heart is unable to keep up with the demands of the body, leading to reduced blood flow, back-up (congestion) of blood in the veins and lungs, and/or... read more or kidney failure Overview of Kidney Failure This chapter includes a new section on COVID-19 and acute kidney injury (AKI). Kidney failure is the inability of the kidneys to adequately filter metabolic waste products from the blood. Kidney... read more , and an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is underactivity of the thyroid gland that leads to inadequate production of thyroid hormones and a slowing of vital body functions. Facial expressions become dull, the voice... read more ). Also, disorders such as gout Gout Gout is a disorder in which deposits of uric acid crystals accumulate in the joints because of high blood levels of uric acid (hyperuricemia). The accumulations of crystals cause flare-ups ... read more or rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis in which joints, usually including those of the hands and feet, are inflamed, resulting in swelling, pain, and often destruction of joints.... read more cause inflammation in the joints. Poor foot posture may also contribute if the ankle rolls too far inward and stresses the nerve within the tarsal tunnel.
Pain, the most common symptom of tarsal tunnel syndrome, usually has a burning or tingling quality that may occur when a person stands, walks, or wears a particular type of shoe. Pain located around the ankle (usually on the inner side) and extending to the toes usually worsens during walking and is relieved by rest. As the disorder progresses, pain also may occur during rest.
To diagnose tarsal tunnel syndrome, a doctor manipulates the affected foot during a physical examination. For example, tapping the injured or compressed area just below the ankle bone often causes tingling (referred to as the Tinel sign), which may extend to the heel, arch, or toes.
Nerve conduction studies Nerve conduction studies Diagnostic procedures may be needed to confirm a diagnosis suggested by the medical history and neurologic examination. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a simple, painless procedure in which... read more may be useful to determine the cause or extent of the injury, especially if foot surgery is being considered.
Injections of a corticosteroid/anesthetic mixture into the area may relieve pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs In some cases, treating the underlying disorder eliminates or minimizes the pain. For example, setting a broken bone in a cast or giving antibiotics for an infected joint helps reduce pain.... read more (NSAIDs) may be used at first and may relieve some symptoms.
Other treatments include wrapping the foot and placing specially constructed devices in the shoe (orthoses).
When other treatments do not relieve the pain, surgery to relieve pressure on the nerve may be necessary.