This disease is caused by a poor blood supply to the upper growth plate of the thighbone near the hip joint.
Typical symptoms include hip pain and trouble walking.
The diagnosis is based on x-rays and sometimes magnetic resonance imaging.
Treatment includes immobilization of the hip and bed rest.
(See also Overview of Bone Disorders in Children Overview of Bone Disorders in Children Bone disorders can be caused by injury, infection, or cancer, be inherited, occur as part of a child’s growth, or occur for no known reason. Some bone disorders can cause pain and difficulty... read more .)
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is an osteochondrosis, which is a group of disorders of the growth plate of bones Overview of Bone Disorders in Children Bone disorders can be caused by injury, infection, or cancer, be inherited, occur as part of a child’s growth, or occur for no known reason. Some bone disorders can cause pain and difficulty... read more that occur when the child is growing rapidly. Doctors are not sure what causes osteochondrosis, but the disorders do seem to run in families. Osgood-Schlatter disease Osgood-Schlatter Disease Osgood-Schlatter disease is painful inflammation of the bone and cartilage at the top of the shinbone (tibia). This disease is caused by overuse of the leg. Typical symptoms include pain, swelling... read more , Köhler bone disease Köhler Bone Disease Köhler bone disease is death (necrosis) of the tarsal navicular bone (a bone at the arch of the foot) due to loss of its blood supply. (See also Overview of Bone Disorders in Children.) Köhler... read more , and Scheuermann disease Scheuermann Disease Kyphosis is an abnormal curving of the spine that causes a humpback. (See also Overview of Bone Disorders in Children.) The upper back normally curves forward somewhat. Some children have a... read more are other osteochondroses.
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease develops most commonly among boys between the ages of 5 and 10. The disease usually affects only one leg. About 10% of children have a relative who has the disease. It is caused by a poor blood supply to the upper growth plate Overview of Bone Disorders in Children Bone disorders can be caused by injury, infection, or cancer, be inherited, occur as part of a child’s growth, or occur for no known reason. Some bone disorders can cause pain and difficulty... read more of the thighbone (femur) near the hip joint. The poor blood supply causes the end of the thigh bone to die and collapse (avascular necrosis or osteonecrosis Osteonecrosis Osteonecrosis is the death of a segment of bone caused by an impaired blood supply. Osteonecrosis can be caused by an injury or can occur spontaneously. Typical symptoms include pain, limited... read more ). The reason for the poor blood supply in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is not known. Other problems also can interrupt blood supply to the growth plates. Such problems include sickle cell disease Sickle Cell Disease Sickle cell disease is an inherited genetic abnormality of hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein found in red blood cells) characterized by sickle (crescent)-shaped red blood cells and chronic... read more and taking corticosteroid drugs. However, hip damage from these and other known causes is not considered Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.
The Femur: Part of the Hip Joint
Symptoms of Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease can cause severe hip damage without causing significant symptoms at first. The severe damage may, however, lead to permanent arthritis of the hip. The first symptom of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease often is pain in the hip joint and trouble walking. Pain begins gradually and progresses slowly. The pain tends to worsen when moving the hip or walking. Some children complain of pain only in the knee. A limp can develop, sometimes before the child has much pain. Eventually, joint movement becomes limited, and the thigh muscles may become wasted (atrophied) from lack of use.
Diagnosis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease
Sometimes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
The diagnosis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is confirmed by x-rays Plain X-Rays X-rays are high-energy radiation waves that can penetrate most substances (to varying degrees). In very low doses, x-rays are used to produce images that help doctors diagnose disease. In high... read more . An MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a strong magnetic field and very high frequency radio waves are used to produce highly detailed images. MRI does not use x-rays and is usually very safe... read more is done if x-rays are normal or the doctor needs more information on the severity. Later x-rays may show changes around the growth plate, such as a fracture or destruction of the bone.
Doctors take x-rays of the child's skeleton if the disorder runs in the child's family or both of the child's legs are affected. These x-rays are taken to rule out hereditary disorders of the skeleton.
Blood tests are done to rule out other disorders. Doctors try to determine whether the symptoms resulted from an injury.
Prognosis of Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease
Young children and children who have less damage when they are diagnosed have the best outcome.
Treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease
Bed rest and immobilization of the hip
Treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease includes prolonged bed rest and immobilization of the hip (for example, with a cast or splint). The choice of treatment depends on the child's age and amount of bone damage. Sometimes the partial immobilization provided by bed rest is sufficient. However, sometimes nearly total immobilization using traction, slings, plaster casts, or splints for 12 to 18 months is necessary. Such treatments keep the legs rotated outward.
Physical therapy Physical Therapy (PT) Physical therapy, a component of rehabilitation, involves exercising and manipulating the body with an emphasis on the back, upper arms, and legs. It can improve joint and muscle function, helping... read more is used to keep the muscles from tightening up and wasting away.
If a child is over age 6 and has moderate or severe bone destruction, surgery may be helpful.
Even without treatment, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease usually gets better, but it takes longer, usually 2 to 3 years, and there is an increased risk of hip arthritis developing later in life.
Treatment with bisphosphonates (drugs that help increase bone density) has been effective, but more studies are needed.