Merck Manual

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How Many Cases of a Disease Can Be Prevented by Vaccines?

How Many Cases of a Disease Can Be Prevented by Vaccines?

Disease

Before the Vaccine Was Developed*

Cases Reported in 2017 or 2016† ‡

21,053

0

Haemophilus influenzae type b infection (in children under 5 years)

20,000 (estimated)

33

117,333 (estimated)

An estimated 4,000†

Hepatitis B (acute)

66,232 (estimated)

An estimated 20,900†

530,217

120

162,344

6,109

Pertussis (whooping cough)

200,752

18,975

Pneumococcal infections that are severe—in all age groups

63,067 (estimated)

An estimated 30,400†

Pneumococcal infections that are severe—in children under 5 years

16,069 (estimated)

An estimated 1,700†

Polio that causes paralysis

16,316

0

Rotavirus infections that required hospitalization—in children under 3 years

62,500 (estimated)

An estimated 30,625†

47,745

7

29,005

0

580

33

Varicella (chickenpox)

4,085,120 (estimated)

An estimated 102,128†

* The average number of cases in the United States each year during the 20th century.

† These numbers are from 2016.

‡ The number of cases reported in the United States.

Adapted from Appendix E: Data and statistics: Impact of vaccines in the 20th and 21st centuries. In Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: The Pink Book, edited by Hamborsky J, Kroger A, and Wolfe S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Washington D.C. Public Health Foundation, 2015, p. E-5. Available at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.